Oil and gas terminology pdf

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oil and gas terminology pdf

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RBP The oil and gas industry uses many acronyms and abbreviations. This list is meant for indicative purposes only and should not be relied upon for anything but general information. Put abbreviations that you do not know in this section. Other people might have an idea. If you received an answer, delete the abbreviation from this section, and add it to its alphabetical section If it is not there yet.

Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing eTool

To cease work on a well which is non-productive, to plug off the well with cement plugs and salvage all recoverable equipment. Also used in the context of field abandonment. Associated gas Natural gas produced with crude oil from the same reservoir. It requires government approval before it can be implemented. Appraisal Well A well drilled as part of an appraisal drilling programme which is carried out to determine the physical extent, reserves and likely production rate of a field.

Associated Gas Natural gas associated with oil accumulations, which may be dissolved in the oil at reservoir conditions or may form a cap of free gas above the oil. Barrel A unit of volume measurement used for petroleum and its products 7. Block A North Sea acreage sub-division measuring approximately 10 x 20 kms, forming part of a quadrant.

Blow-down Condensate and gas is produced simultaneously from the outset of production. Blow-out preventers BOPs are high pressure wellhead valves, designed to shut off the uncontrolled flow of hydrocarbons.

Blow-out When well pressure exceeds the ability of the wellhead valves to control it. Casing Metal pipe inserted into a wellbore and cemented in place to protect both subsurface formations such as groundwater and the wellbore. A surface casing is set first to protect groundwater. The production casing is the last one set.

The production tubing through which hydrocarbons flow to the surface will be suspended inside the production casing. Casing string The steel tubing that lines a well after it has been drilled.

It is formed from sections of steel tube screwed together. Christmas tree The assembly of fittings and valves on the top of the casing which control the production rate of oil. Completion The installation of permanent wellhead equipment for the production of oil and gas. Condensate Hydrocarbons which are in the gaseous state under reservoir conditions and which become liquid when temperature or pressure is reduced. A mixture of pentanes and higher hydrocarbons. Crane barge A large barge, capable of lifting heavy equipment onto offshore platforms.

Creaming Theory A statistical technique which recognises that in any exploration province after an initial period in which the largest fields are found, success rates and average field sizes decline as more exploration wells are drilled and knowledge of the area matures. Cuttings Rock chippings cut from the formation by the drill bit, and brought to the surface with the mud. Used by geologists to obtain formation data. Compressor An engine used to increase the pressure of natural gas so that it will flow more easily through a pipeline.

Derrick The tower-like structure that houses most of the drilling controls. Development well A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive; a well drilled in a proven field for the purpose of completing the desired spacing pattern of production.

Downhole A term used to describe tools, equipment, and instruments used in the wellbore, or conditions or techniques applying to the wellbore. Downstream When referring to the oil and gas industry, this term indicates the refining and marketing sectors of the industry. More generically, the term can be used to refer to any step further along in the process. Drill cuttings The small pieces of rock created as a drill bit moves through underground formations while drilling.

Drilling rig A drilling unit that is not permanently fixed to the seabed, e. Also means the derrick and its associated machinery. Dry gas Natural gas composed mainly of methane with only minor amounts of ethane, propane and butane and little or no heavier hydrocarbons in the gasoline range. Dry hole Any exploratory or development well that does not find commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. Enhanced oil recovery EOR A process whereby oil is recovered other than by the natural pressure in a reservoir.

Refers to a variety of processes to increase the amount of oil removed from a reservoir, typically by injecting a liquid e. Exploration well Drilling carried out to determine whether hydrocarbons are present in a particular area or structure.

Farm in When a company acquires an interest in a block by taking over all or part of the financial commitment for drilling an exploration well. Fishing Retrieving objects from the borehole, such as a broken drillstring, or tools. Formation damage The reduction in permeability in reservoir rock due to the infiltration of drilling or treating fluids into the area adjacent to the wellbore.

Formation pressure The pressure at the bottom of a well when it is shut in at the wellhead. Fracturing A method of breaking down a formation by pumping fluid at very high pressure. The objective is to increase production rates from a reservoir. Gas injection The process whereby separated associated gas is pumped back into a reservoir for conservation purposes or to maintain the reservoir pressure. Gas-to-Liquids GTL The conversion of natural gas to a liquid form so that it can be transported easily.

Typically, the liquid is converted back to natural gas prior to consumption. Hydrocarbon A compound containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon. May exist as a solid, a liquid or a gas. The term is mainly used in a catch-all sense for oil, gas and condensate. Integrated company Indicates a firm that operates in both the upstream and downstream sectors from exploration through refining and marketing. ITF Industry Technology Facilitator; an internationally recognized champion for technology innovation within the oil and gas industry acting as a conduit between technology innovators and the industry.

Lease A legal document conveying the right to drill for oil and gas, or the tract of land on which a lease has been obtained where the producing wells and production equipment are located. Liquefied natural gas LNG Oilfield or naturally occurring gas, chiefly methane, liquefied for transportation. Liquefied petroleum gas LPG Light hydrocarbon material, gaseous at atmospheric temperature and pressure, held in the liquid state by pressure to facilitate storage, transport and handling. Commercial liquefied gas consists essentially of either propane or butane, or mixtures thereof.

It also introduces a standard pre-emption regime to give confidence to incoming companies. Mud A mixture of base substance and additives used to lubricate the drill bit and to counteract the natural pressure of the formation. Midstream A term sometimes used to refer to those industry activities that fall between exploration and production upstream and refining and marketing downstream. The term is most often applied to pipeline transportation of crude oil and natural gas.

Natural Gas Gas, occurring naturally, and often found in association with crude petroleum. Natural gas liquids NGLs The portions of gas from a reservoir that are liquified at the surface in separators, field facilities, or gas processing plants. Non-associated gas Natural gas produced from a reservoir that does not contain significant quantities of crude oil.

Oil in place An estimated measure of the total amount of oil contained in a reservoir, and, as such, a higher figure than the estimated recoverable reserves of oil. Operator The company that has legal authority to drill wells and undertake production of hydrocarbons. The operator is often part of a consortium and acts on behalf of this consortium. Permeability The property of a formation which quantifies the flow of a fluid through the pore spaces and into the wellbore. Petroleum A generic name for hydrocarbons, including crude oil, natural gas liquids, natural gas and their products.

Permeability A measure of the ability of a rock to transmit fluid through pore spaces. Porosity A ratio between the volume of the pore space in reservoir rock and the total bulk volume of the rock.

The pore space determines the amount of space available for storage of fluids. Primary recovery Recovery of oil or gas from a reservoir purely by using the natural pressure in the reservoir to force the oil or gas out. Produced water The water extracted from the subsurface with oil and gas. Some produced water is quite fresh and may be used for livestock watering or irrigation where allowed by law. Proven reserves Those reserves which on the available evidence are virtually certain to be technically and economically producible i.

Reservoir The underground formation where oil and gas has accumulated. It consists of a porous rock to hold the oil or gas, and a cap rock that prevents its escape. Riser production The section of pipework that joins a seabed wellhead to the Christmas tree. Roughneck Drill crew members who work on the derrick floor, screwing together the sections of drillpipe when running or pulling a drillstring. Roustabout Drill crew members who handle the loading and unloading of equipment and assist in general operations around the rig.

Royalty A percentage interest in the value of production from a lease that is retained and paid to the mineral rights owner. Secondary recovery Recovery of oil or gas from a reservoir by artificially maintaining or enhancing the reservoir pressure by injecting gas, water or other substances into the reservoir rock. Separation The process of separating liquid and gas hydrocarbons and water. This is typically accomplished in a pressure vessel at the surface, but newer technologies allow separation to occur in the wellbore under certain conditions.

Shutdown A production hiatus during which the platform ceases to produce while essential maintenance work is undertaken. Standard contracts Known formerly as CRINE contracts, standard contracts have been developed by the Standard Contracts Committee and are issued by LOGIC for use within the industry between clients and their contractors, simplifying procedures and saving costs.

Standard agreements State-of-the-art solutions for oil and gas industry agreements and recommended for use by all UKCS licensees. They are user-friendly and easy to implement. In helping simplify operational and transactional procedures, they focus resources and save costs. Step Change in Safety The UK based partnership with the remit to make the UK the safest oil and gas exploration and production province in the world.

Toolpusher Second-in-command of a drilling crew under the drilling superintendent. Responsible for the day-to-day running of the rig and for ensuring that all the necessary equipment is available. Upstream The exploration and production portions of the oil and gas industry. Wellhead The 1equipment at the surface of a well used to control the pressure; the point at which the hydrocarbons and water exit the ground. Well log A record of geological formation penetrated during drilling, including technical details of the operation.

Wet gas Natural gas containing significant amounts of liquifiable hydrocarbons. Wildcat well A well drilled in an area where no current oil or gas production exists. Workover Operations on a producing well to restore or increase production.

DMS Oil & Gas Terminology

Your web browser is out of date. Update your browser for more security, speed and the best experience on this site. You have successfully subscribed to the newsletter! A drilling tool that cuts the hole. Bits are designed on two basic and different principles. The cable tool bit moves up and down to pulverize. The rotary bit revolves to grind.

The ILO estimates that nearly 6 million people are directly employed by the petroleum industry and over ten times that number of jobs are indirectly created by the industry. Employment opportunities for women in the petroleum industry are increasing, but from a very low base. This may be because of harsh working conditions in the industry: long hours work, especially in oil production; increasing amounts of work round the clock, in difficult, remote areas ; scheduling of shifts particularly offshore when rotation patterns are constrained by transport schedules and limits on accommodation. The petroleum industry faces the shortage of skilled workers. Find information on the oil and gas production sector through Labordoc ILO publications on the oil and gas production sector All publications on the oil and gas production sector available in Labordoc By theme Corporate social responsibility Employment Industrial relations Occupational safety and health Offshore installations Oil prices Productivity and technology Social dialogue Sustainable development Working conditions By region Africa Arab countries Asia and Pacific Europe Latin America and the Caribbean North America Developed countries Developing countries Petroleum exporting countries.

Glossary of oilfield jargon

We work with the industry and government to maximise the economic recovery of UK oil and gas and support the UK government in its drive to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by The OGA is fully committed to enabling the achievement of the UK government's commitment to reach net zero emissions by The UKCS is one of the most technologically advanced hydrocarbon provinces in the world. The latest announcements, reports, consultations and events, from OGA and industry. Glossary of Terms Home Glossary of Terms.

This page requires that javascript be enabled for some elements to function correctly. Also, a text version of the Illustrated Glossary is available. A large valve, usually installed above the ram preventers, that forms a seal in the annular space between the pipe and well bore. If no pipe is present, it forms a seal on the well bore itself. See blowout preventer.

Chenault, Roy L. Last reviewed: January The location, drilling, completion, and equipment of wells necessary to produce the commercially recoverable oil and gas in a field.

How the Oil and Gas Industry Works

To cease work on a well which is non-productive, to plug off the well with cement plugs and salvage all recoverable equipment.

Glossary of oilfield jargon

As the voice of the upstream oil and natural gas industry in Canada, we provide a comprehensive glossary of industry terms. Energy sector provides for Canadians today as it looks to the future. Glossary As the voice of the upstream oil and natural gas industry in Canada, we provide a comprehensive glossary of industry terms Abandonment The process of changing a once active well one that will no longer produce oil or natural gas , to a state where it can be left indefinitely. All equipment that was used to produce oil and gas is removed and work is completed on the well to ensure that it will not cause harm to any environmental or human surroundings.

This helpful OPIS glossary can assist you in better understanding many oil industry terms. Download Glossary. Plus, be sure to check out other free and helpful resources from OPIS. View more free resources. High volume 25, to , bbl contractual agreements between oil companies dictating delivery of petroleum products or crude oil in the near future for an established sales price. Since this market reacts quickly, and is an alternative to wholesale sales, it provides a good indication of the direction of wholesale price trends.


The API publishes weekly statistics on the petroleum industry. API gravity: the universally accepted scale adopted by the API for the measurement of crude oil.


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