Coastal processes and landforms pdf
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In Fiji, the legacy of past sea-level changes, notably those of Holocene age, cannot be deciphered on modern coastlines without reference to the contemporary local tectonic regime. The structure and the dominant tectonic tendency for each constituent element of the Fiji islands during the late Quaternary include: a areas of predominant uplift and perhaps vertical creep, such as Cikobia and Taveuni; b areas where subsidence dominated between intermittent bursts of uplift, such as the Cakaudrove coast of Vanua Levu and parts of Viti Levu's south coast; areas where subsidence was dominant, such as the Yasawa and Mamanuca island groups and the Yasayasa Moala; and tdl areas which were effectively stable, such as the islands of the Lau Ridge and Lomaiviti. Average shoreline displacement increases from areas where subsidence has been dominant through those which have been effectively stable to those where uplift has been dominant.
Another approach to coastal classification is to consider whether coastal processes in the coastal zone are primarily contributing sediment to the coastline or whether they are removing sediment from the coastline. The former of these is recognized as deposition, whereas the latter is known as erosion. Where erosion is the dominant process, the coastline is retreating landward, and where deposition is the dominant, the coastline is advancing seaward. Quite often, erosional coasts are narrow and characterized by resilient rocky shorelines that are exposed to high energy waves and supply relatively little sediment to the adjacent shore.
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Coastal landforms , any of the relief features present along any coast , the result of a combination of processes, sediments, and the geology of the coast itself. The coastal environment of the world is made up of a wide variety of landforms manifested in a spectrum of sizes and shapes ranging from gently sloping beaches to high cliffs, yet coastal landforms are best considered in two broad categories: erosional and depositional. In fact, the overall nature of any coast may be described in terms of one or the other of these categories. It should be noted, however, that each of the two major landform types may occur on any given reach of coast. The landforms that develop and persist along the coast are the result of a combination of processes acting upon the sediments and rocks present in the coastal zone. The most prominent of these processes involves waves and the currents that they generate, along with tides.
The most widespread landforms of erosional coasts are sea cliffs. Wave erosion undercuts steep shorelines creating coastal cliffs. A sea cliff is a.
For example, waves and tides involve movement and dissipation of large amounts of energy capable of causing rapid and spectacular changes in landforms along coasts. The following are driving forces that affect shorelines:. Explore This Park. Coastal Processes.
Coastal erosion is the loss or displacement of land, or the long-term removal of sediment and rocks along the coastline due to the action of waves , currents , tides , wind-driven water, waterborne ice, or other impacts of storms. On non-rocky coasts, coastal erosion results in rock formations in areas where the coastline contains rock layers or fracture zones with varying resistance to erosion. Softer areas become eroded much faster than harder ones, which typically result in landforms such as tunnels , bridges , columns , and pillars. Over time the coast generally evens out.
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Что это. - Стратмор только сделал вид, что звонил по телефону. Глаза Хейла расширились. Слова Сьюзан словно парализовали его, но через минуту он возобновил попытки высвободиться. - Он убьет. Я чувствую. Ведь я слишком много знаю.
- Ах да… Я, кажется, что-то такое читала. - Не очень правдоподобное заявление. - Согласна, - сказала Сьюзан, удивившись, почему вдруг Хейл заговорил об. - Я в это не верю. Всем известно, что невзламываемый алгоритм - математическая бессмыслица.