Wong and law emotional intelligence scale pdf

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wong and law emotional intelligence scale pdf

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As a departure from past research on emotional intelligence EI , which generally examines the influence of an individual's level of EI on that individual's consequences, we examined relationships between the emotional intelligence EI of both members of dyads involved in a negotiation in order to explain objective and subjective outcomes. As expected, individuals high in EI reported a more positive experience.

Emotional Intelligence is increasingly being recognized as an essential in the workforce. But how can one know whether the Emotional Intelligence of people is improving or has regressed? As important it is to integrate initiatives which enhance the emotional intelligence of the workforce, it is equally important to measure it.

Article: How to measure emotional intelligence: The WLEIS scale

The sample consisted of university students in the province of Balochistan, Pakistan. Results indicated that the WLEIS sub-scales yield precise measurement for individuals with low to moderate trait levels and relatively imprecise measurement for individuals with high trait levels. After examining the unidimensionality of WLEIS four sub-scales, graded response model for seven ordered categories was applied Samejima, using "ltm" an R package Rizopoulous, All rights reserved. Emotional intelligence EI is a concept that has received a great deal of scholarly attention in the social science literature, as well as, in the popular press.

Salovey and Mayer were first to utilize the term "emotional intelligence" to represent the ability to deal with emotions. They drew on relevant evidence from previous intelligence and emotion research and provided the first comprehensive model of EI. Since Salovey and Mayer's conceptualization, a considerable amount of theoretical and empirical research has been done on the conceptualization of EI e. Despite these notable advances in the EI field, it is an open question whether existing EI instruments possess the requisite psychometric properties.

Specifically, the use of EI instruments in selection and promotion has led to a concomitant increase in the need for researchers to evaluate the quality and, more importantly, the measurement precision of the EI instruments. Unlike classical test theory CTT , item response theory IRT based psychometric methods offer some of the best alternatives for devising and optimizing instruments both at test and item level. For instance, in IRT, the model is expressed at the level of the observed item response rather than at the level of the observed test score.

Furthermore, unlike CTT which assumes that measurement precision is constant across the entire trait range, IRT models recognize that measurement precision may not be constant for all examinees.

For example, for selection purposes measurement precision at the upper end of trait 6 would likely be of main interest and a lack of measurement precision at the low end of trait 6 continuum might be excused.

In sum, it is likely that many scales used in EI research have an unequal distribution of precision across the normal range of the trait continuum. In IRT, the underlying trait is commonly designated by Greek letter theta 6 and is most often scaled to have a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. The correspondence between the responses to an item and latent trait 6 is known as the item characteristic curve ICC.

As can be seen, the probability of endorsing an item option is monotically nondecreasing in 6, that is, the probability of endorsing an item increases as one moves along the trait continuum. Furthermore, the curves are nonlinear and may differ in shapes. The simplest commonly used IRT model has one parameter for describing the characteristics of the person and one parameter for describing the characteristics of the item.

Consequently each item is supposed to have the same discrimination, which is represented by parallel ICCs as shown in Panel A of Figure 1. This model can be represented by. Where Pi 0 is the probability of a random examinee with ability 6 answering item i correctly, h is the difficulty parameter for item i, and e is a natural constant whose value is 2.

The item difficulty parameter b represents the level of the latent trait necessary to have a 0. Panel A of Figure 1 is an example of 1-PL model, with three dichotomous items. In 1-PL model only item difficulty is allowed to vary, therefore the three ICCs are parallel same slopes. The only feature of ICC that changes from test item to test item is the location of the curve on the 0 scale. Where 0 is the ability level, b is difficulty parameter, ai is the discrimination parameter, and D is a scaling factor introduced in order to make the logistic function approximate the normal ogive function as closely as possible.

The item discrimination parameter ai represents an item's ability to differentiate between people with contiguous trait levels. Similarly, in IRT the item that has high discrimination value is considered as a better indicator of latent trait. Item 1 in Panel B of Figure 1 has a discrimination value of 1. Examinees with trait levels in the vicinity of 1.

Whereas, item 3 is less steep with discrimination value of 0. Hence item three is not efficient in differentiating between people with contiguous trait levels. For instance examinee with the trait level in the vicinity of 1. We gain information about examinees based on their responses to particular items and the properties of items. The concept of information helps us understand where a given scale provides more or less information about examinees.

Information function shows how much psychometric information a number that represents an item's ability to differentiate among people the items provide at each trait level Fraley et al.

Like item response functions, item information functions can provide useful information about item parameters. Item information in 2-PL is represented by. Where Ij 6i is item information, af is the squared item discrimination parameter for item j, and Pj 0i is the probability of endorsing item j for individuals with 0 level i. Panel A Figure 2 shows the item information function corresponding to three items in Panel B of Figure 1. Clearly, items of different difficulty provide information in different-trait ranges, that is, an item is most informative at trait level corresponding to item difficulty values.

Moving the threshold b up or down would simply move the IIF right or left on the x-axis. Item 1 and 2 are IIF for two items with different thresholds, but same slope.

Furthermore, more discriminating items e. Slopes control how peaked the IIF is. The higher the slope values, the more information that item provides around threshold. To understand how the test is functioning as a whole, item information can be summed to produce a scale information function. The square root of the inverse of information at a given level of the latent trait provides the standard error which would be attached to that particular score.

Items and scale information functions are analoguos to CTT's item and test reliability. However, under IRT framework information measurement precision can potentially differ for people with different trait level, whereas in CTT the scale reliability precision is the same for all individuals regardless of their raw score levels.

In sum, in IRT there are as many standard errors of measurement as there are unique trait estimates Fraley et al. The graded response model GRM: Samejima, , , an extension of the 2-PL model, is appropriate to use when item responses can be characterized as ordered categorical responses such as exists in Likert rating scales. Each threshold specifies the point on the 6 scale at which a subject has.

These thresholds share a common slope or discrimination factor, ag. GRM let us determine the location of these thresholds on the latent trait continuum. For the GRM, one operating characteristic curve needs to be estimated for each between category thresholds. As already noted above, an item response scale is conceptualized as a series of m-1 response dichotomies, where m represents the number of response options for a given item.

An item related on a 1-to-5 has four response dichotomies: a category 1 versus categories 2, 3, 4, and 5; b categories 1 and 2 versus categories 3, 4, and 5; c categories 1, 2, and 3 versus categories 4, and 5; and d categories 1, 2, 3, and 4 versus category 5. In GRM, 2-PL model are estimated for each dichotomy with the constraints that the slopes of each of the operating characteristic curves are equal within an item.

In the second step, the operating characteristic curves for each response dichotomy are used to calculate the probability of endorsing a particular response option, xj, as a function of the latent trait. Embretson and Reise called these probability functions as category response curves CRC. Thus with a 5-poing scale, the probability of responding in each of the five categories CRCs are given as follows.

The item has a discrimination value ai of 1. From Figure it is evident that the between category threshold parameters represent the point along the latent trait scale at which examinees have a 0. These curves represent the probability of responding in each. The shape and location of the operating characteristic curves and category response curves depends upon the item parameters.

For instance the higher the ai slope parameter the steeper the operating characteristic curve and more peaked and narrow the CRCs, indicating that the response categories differentiate among trait levels fairly well. Generally speaking, items with higher shape and parameters provide more information. The threshold parameters hj determine the location of the curves and where each of the CRC Figure 3 Panel B from the middle response options peaks i. In ploytomous IRT models, these values should not be interpreted directly as item discrimination.

To directly assume the amount of discrimination item values provide a researcher need to compute item information curves IICs. Item information functions can be generated for graded response items. Equations for the GRM information functions are provided in Samejim , p. All participants were treated in accordance with the "Ethical principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" American Psychological Association, Administration of the questionnaires was carried out by post graduate students who acted as research assistants and no monetary incentive was provided.

WLEIS consists of 16 items and taps individuals' knowledge about their own emotional abilities rather than their actual capacities. The response scale has been seven point Likert-type scale ranging from one strongly disagree to seven strongly agree. Preliminary psychometric analysis i. Coefficients alphas for the four dimensions were: SEA:.

IRT models assume that the latent trait construct space is either strictly unidimensional, or as a practical matter, demonstrated by a general underlying factor. As an alternative, unidimensionality was assessed by examining the relative ratio of the eigenvalues of the first and second factor. Principal axis factor analysis on the items polychoric matrix was conducted. A graded response model for seven ordered categories was applied Samejima, using "ltm" an R package Rizopoulous, The maximal number of iterations cycles was set to , and all scales converged before reaching There are many methods for assessing model-data fit in IRT analysis.

In this study. Fit plots are most widely used method for examining model-data fit. Unidimensionality of each WLEIS scale was assessed by principal axis factoring applied to a matrix of polychoric correlations used for items with ordered responses with Stata Table 1 presents statistics relevant to scales dimensionality: Internal consistency using CTT method was reasonably strong ranging from. As can be seen, there was prominent first factor as indicated by eigenvalues. All items had factor loadings of greater than 0.

Furthermore, the variance accounted for by the first factor was well above the. The graded response models were successfully caliberated by "ltm" R package for each WLEIS scale with a maximum intercycle parameter change of less than 0.

In order to check the appropriability of the unconstrained GRM models, constrained version of the GRM was compared with the unconstrained model through likelihood ratio tests. In contrast to unconstrained models, constrained version of GRM assumes equal discrimination parameters across all set of items present in the test here four items within each WLEIS sub-scale.

A summary of the discrimination and threshold item parameters for unconstrained GRMs is given in the Table 2. Table 2 also revealed that the category threshold values were somewhat skewed toward the negative range of 6.

EXAMINING THE PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE WONG AND LAW EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCES SCALE (WLEIS)

The sample consisted of university students in the province of Balochistan, Pakistan. Results indicated that the WLEIS sub-scales yield precise measurement for individuals with low to moderate trait levels and relatively imprecise measurement for individuals with high trait levels. After examining the unidimensionality of WLEIS four sub-scales, graded response model for seven ordered categories was applied Samejima, using "ltm" an R package Rizopoulous, All rights reserved. Emotional intelligence EI is a concept that has received a great deal of scholarly attention in the social science literature, as well as, in the popular press.

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Background: Some meta-analyses have demonstrated the association between emotional intelligence EI and different health indicators. With the increase of suicide cases in the world, more and more professionals have been interested in the link between both variables. Aim: To study all the available evidence on the association between EI and suicidal behavior. Method: We systematically reviewed all available literature in English or Spanish on the relationship between both variables through the main databases. Results: Twenty-five articles were included.

Factor structure of the Korean version of Wong and Law's Emotional Intelligence Scale

Emotional Intelligence is increasingly being recognized as an essential in the workforce. But how can one know whether the Emotional Intelligence of people is improving or has regressed? As important it is to integrate initiatives which enhance the emotional intelligence of the workforce, it is equally important to measure it.

WEIS consists of two parts. The first part contains 20 scenarios and respondents are required to choose one option that best reflects their likely reaction in each scenario. The second part contains 20 ability pairs and respondents are required to choose one out of the two types of abilities that best represent their strengths. Many tests that promise to measure emotional intelligence have appeared in recent years. Some of these tests seem promising, but many have not been empirically evaluated.

Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, and job satisfaction among physicians in Greece

Key Areas Measured

Metrics details. There is increasing evidence that psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence and emotional labor, play an important role in various organizational outcomes in service sector. Data were collected from physicians in Greece, who completed a series of self-report questionnaires including: a the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, which assessed the four dimensions of emotional intelligence, i. Self-Emotion Appraisal was found to influence job satisfaction both directly and indirectly through surface acting, while this indirect effect was moderated by gender. Apart from its mediating role, surface acting was also a moderator of the emotional intelligence-job satisfaction relationship.

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  • Here is a short item measure of emotional intelligence, developed for use in management research and studies. The items on the Wong and. Law Emotional. Isabella A. - 29.04.2021 at 21:23
  • Measurement equivalence of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale across cultures: An item response theory approach. February. Marvel V. - 01.05.2021 at 02:49

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