Understanding food science and technology pdf
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. As the U. Individuals representing many disciplines—microbiology, chemistry, engineering, processing, packaging, sensory science, and nutrition, among others—work under the umbrella of food science to support the integrity of the food supply Floros et al.
In addition, food scientists collaborate with other disciplines e. Much of this is accomplished by food processing, defined as any intentional change to a food occurring between the point of origin and availability for consumption Floros et al.
Food is processed for many different purposes and, overall, processing results in improved product characteristics such as safety, shelf life, quality, sensory attributes, and nutritional value. In more recent years, consumers have demanded additional product features such as convenience and variety to their food choices, and they expect greater transparency about the origins of their food and the type of processes utilized in manufacturing a product.
New trends such as online food shopping and the use of food-on-demand services. Attaining a food supply that provides safe, healthy, appealing, and affordable foods is the shared responsibility of food and allied industries, local, state, and federal governments, and researchers and educators in academic institutions, along with consumers through their food choices and practices.
However, investigating overarching concepts in the food sciences, and solving universal, crosscutting problems, is frequently tackled with basic and applied scientific research that is conducted at public and private universities and in government laboratories. Although different stakeholder groups contribute to the funding and intellectual enterprise of. Recently, however, the source of funding has shifted. Public support for human nutrition research has increased over the past several decades.
The nutrition research includes nutrition through the life cycle, health disease, metabolism, and metabolic mechanisms , and food science monitoring, education, and policy; and supplements.
However, the portfolio of research has changed with. Department of Health and Human Services and decreased support from the U. Department of Agriculture. The shift has affected the type of problems addressed through federal support as well as mechanism shifting from formula funds to nonformula extramural support. From to , the federal share of research funding for food sciences food processing, preservation, and other food-related technologies decreased from 10 to 4 percent of the total funding for nutrition research Toole and Kuchler, This chapter identifies important challenges faced by the postharvest food sector in making progress toward meeting future demands for a safe, nutritious, sustainable, and affordable food supply for all.
It also identifies emerging opportunities, largely as a consequence of scientific and technological developments, to address these challenges, along with gaps and barriers. Concrete illustrative examples of these emerging opportunities are provided. The chapter does not address the cost and social implications of these technological advances, including factors that may limit access to new products or processes e. Chapter 9 considers some of the socioeconomic considerations related to the scientific innovations.
Factors such as population growth, more variable weather cycles, and globalization, among others, have changed and continue to dramatically change our food system. Supply networks now offer greater consumer choice over a wide variety of products through large, interconnected markets. However, many challenges to the system have emerged. The committee identified two general challenge areas that need to be addressed over the next 20 years using the newest scientific and technological breakthroughs.
The essential role of food is maintaining human life and health. Food promotes health because it contains nutrients that are necessary to provide energy, meet physiological needs and functions, and prevent chronic diseases. As mentioned in Chapter 1 , this report does not address research efforts devoted to understanding the association between human nutrition and health, although it should be noted that this continues to be an important area of future research.
Indeed, the increased recognition of the complex, and often personalized, interactions between agricultural produc-. Findings from this type of research could lead to more healthful foods and better diets in general, and those in accordance with the needs of specific consumer subpopulations.
It is important to recognize that humans eat foods, not nutrients, and so foods must be both nutritious and appealing. Sensory attributes are among the most important drivers of food consumption preferences Lusk and Briggeman, The holistic sensory experience is complex, and there is an implicit causal chain of events from sensation, to experiencing pleasure, to food intake.
Sensory is not only impacted by the complexity of food components from macromolecules to ingredients to formulation; there is emerging science indicating that human genetic variability plays a major role in the way individuals experience foods. Understanding the interactions between the food chemical composition and the consuming human is critical to developing products that meet consumer preferences for flavor and appearance while delivering nutrition and health benefits.
For some consumers, ethical and environmental concerns may dominate their preferences e. Improved understanding of the influence of social, behavioral, and psychological factors on the development and role of these influences is necessary, particularly as consumers are faced with choices about products developed with new technologies for some of which there is conflicting evidence on risks and benefits.
One relevant ethical issue is that of consumer behavior around food loss and waste, given that percent of the food produced in the United States is wasted, largely at the retail and consumer stages Gunders, ; Buzby et al. Food supply chain participators have joined forces in initiatives to reduce waste e. Other challenges are best addressed through focus on a systems approach and behavioral changes see Conrad et al. An increasingly globalized and highly networked food supply chain has made it more challenging to protect food from intentional and unintentional microbial and chemical contamination.
Although regulatory and surveillance systems are arguably better than they were 25 years ago, in many ways our current food safety system still lacks sophistication and is not nimble enough to respond swiftly when a critical issue arises. Large amounts of food safety data are currently being collected from farm to fork, but those data can be somewhat crude e. If more precise, accurate, faster, and less expensive technologies were applied to food protection, testing could occur more often to facilitate the detection of infrequent contamination events, and to more rapidly manage and respond to food safety incidents.
For example, the availability of very rapid and sensitive ways to detect harmful biological agents or chemical contaminants would result in a safer food supply, especially if detection occurred before the contaminants were widely dispersed as ingredients or through products entering the retail food system.
This would be particularly the case if the methods were easy to apply and inexpensive. Identifying the most relevant data and points of collection and intervention are key to effective and integrated data systems.
Field deployability would allow detection technologies to touch every phase of the farm-to-fork continuum.
When a contaminated product enters the market, or an outbreak occurs, we currently rely on piecemeal systems to perform epidemiological investigations, trace back, and trace forward, meaning public health risk remains elevated for extended periods of time, until the right information has been obtained and synthesized. A thorough and integrated data communication and management system that includes all steps in the supply chain would greatly aid traceability and reduce the public health impact of food safety events, particularly in the case of larger processors, distributors, and retailers.
As stated above, technological advances over the past few decades have opened the door to faster, more accurate, and more relevant data collection in food safety.
When married to algorithms that assess risk and costs and benefits, it is possible to prevent contaminated products from. There is also a need to ensure that best practices to maintain food quality are being adhered to throughout the food supply and distribution channels. For instance, data from biochemical analysis can be used to ensure that product traits such as appearance, flavor, or nutritional value are maintained.
An integrated system that mapped the flow of products and ingredients, and transferred information about food quality throughout food distribution, would improve efficiency and integrity by contractors all through the supply chain and increase consumer trust. Better assurance of food quality will also aid in optimizing resource efficiencies in the system and ultimately reduce food loss and waste through improved ingredient flow and increased product shelf life.
For example, integrated analytical approaches in food chemistry and analysis can be used to increase our understanding of food composition at the molecular and even atomic levels.
Beyond food fingerprinting, omics technologies provide a means to detect, quantify, and characterize individual metabolites or combinations thereof.
This is opening doors to development of improved bioactive absorption and delivery systems, and better colors and flavors, to name just a few of the applications Gallo and Ferranti, These technologies are also particularly useful in identifying relevant volatile compounds that may serve as markers of product freshness Wojnowski et al.
They may also identify molecular targets analytes during the development of advanced detection methods for harmful microbes, chemicals, and toxins, and therefore further improve food safety. Identification of novel biorecognition molecules used to capture and detect key analytes will make it easier to perform analyses on very complex sample matrices, a long-time obstacle to the application of advanced analytical methods to foods. Production of increasingly miniaturized analytical equipment i.
The combined use of omics technologies, bioinformatics, and advanced analytical methods provides innovative means by which scientists can explore interactions between systems. In nutrition, for instance, applying omics techniques to human genetics, physiological status, the gut microbiome, and food composition can lead us closer to integrated personalized nutrition Grimaldi et al.
In sensory science, where we know that the flavor experience is multimodal, omics techniques can be used to characterize genetic and metabolic differences in consumer perception of flavor, allowing for a better understanding.
When this information is used along with food fingerprinting, it becomes possible to design and produce food having ideal health benefits with greater consumer appeal. Individual omics technologies focus on one aspect or component of a much larger system.
In a health care setting, genomics can be used for genetic fingerprinting, metabolomics for metabolic profiling, sequencing and bioinformatics for elucidating characteristics of the microbiome.
For a particular food, various omics techniques can be used to determine its nutrient composition, sensory characteristics, and microbiological profile. Each of these individual analyses provides characterization of what is going on in a patient or a product and constitutes a subsystem. However, to understand the entire person or product, there is also the need to elucidate how these subsystems interact with one another, forming a system of systems.
For instance, most chronic diseases e. For such diseases, there are significant gaps in knowledge about interactions between genes, diet, other behaviors e. Having the full scientific capabilities to understand the interactions and identify the key determinants of any particular illness or trait has yet to be realized see Box According to a recent study, the most common reasons given by consumers for discarding food were concerns about its safety and the willingness to consume only the freshest product Neff et al.
Such technologies ideally would have features such as high sensitivity and specificity of analyte detection, low cost, small footprint, reliability, short time to result, and be field deployable and adaptable, among others. Sensors are devices that detect or measure physical, chemical, or biological properties and then record, indicate, or respond to those results. Biosensors in particular are analytical devices that combine a biological component with a physicochemical detector.
The biologically derived component is a material or biomimetic compound that interacts, binds, or otherwise recognizes the analyte to be detected. Increasingly, these are being identified using various omics methods see the section above. Table provides a summary of some common biosensor technologies.
In most cases, the choice to use nanomaterials is founded on the desire. Noble metals e. Incorporation of a nucleic acid amplification step into the biosensor design, particularly those that do not require temperature cycling e. Examples of nanosensors in developing specific food safety applications are detailed in Wang and Duncan and in Vigneshvar et al. Sensor technologies are also highly applicable to monitoring product freshness, such as detecting biochemical parameters that are correlated with product spoilage and shelf life, particularly near product life end Xiaobo et al.
These types of sensors are usually noninvasive in nature. Examples of product attributes that can be measured are color, the presence of surface defects, and chemical composition. Technological platforms include optical, acoustical, NMR, and electrical. Biomimetic devices such as electronic noses, which are already used for personalized medicine Fitzgerald et al. At the end of the sensing phase, an electronic reader allows signal processing so that results are displayed in a user-friendly manner.
Mobile diagnostics that use Internet-of-Things technologies to link sensor output to smartphones and cameras, and are even coupled with data entry on servers or the cloud, have been reported, particularly for detection of foodborne pathogens, food allergens, antibiotic residues, and shellfish toxins, in relevant sample matrices Rateni et al. Although handheld mobile readouts are still in development with significant need for improvement e. There are a number of practical impediments to successful, routine use of biosensor technologies in foods and environmental samples.
Food Science and Technology
Food Science is a convenient name used to describe the application of scientific principles to create and maintain a wholesome food supply. The commitment of food science and technology professionals to advancing the science of food, ensuring a safe and abundant food supply, and contributing to healthier people everywhere is integral to that evolution. Food scientists and technologists are versatile, interdisciplinary, and collaborative practitioners in a profession at the crossroads of scientific and technological developments. As the food system has drastically changed, from one centered around family food production on individual farms and food preservation to the modern system of today, most people are not connected to their food nor are they familiar with agricultural production and food manufacturing designed for better food safety and quality. The Food Scientist helps supply this bounty by learning to apply a wide range of scientific knowledge to maintain a high quality, abundant food supply. Food Science allows us to make the best use of our food resources and minimize waste.
PDF | This book is divided into six main parts, namely: Food Components and Their Function, Properties of Foods, Food Safety and Quality.
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