# Difference between series and parallel circuit pdf

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Published: 26.04.2021  ## The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

These rules fall neatly into two categories: series circuits and parallel circuits. The two circuit types are shown here, with squares representing any type of two-terminal electrical component:. The defining characteristic of a series electrical circuit is it provides just one path for current. This means there can be only one value for current anywhere in the circuit, the exact same current for all components at any given time.

The principle of current being the same everywhere in a series circuit is actually an expression of a more fundamental law of physics: the Conservation of Charge , which states that electric charge cannot be created or destroyed. In order for current to have different values at different points in a series circuit indefinitely, electric charge would have to somehow appear and disappear to account for greater rates of charge flow in some areas than in others.

It would be the equivalent of having different rates of water flow at different locations along one length of pipe.

Series circuits are defined by having only one path for current, and this means the steady-state current in a series circuit must be the same at all points of that circuit. It also means that the sum of all voltages dropped by load devices must equal the sum total of all source voltages, and that the total resistance of the circuit will be the sum of all individual resistances:.

The defining characteristic of a parallel circuit, by contrast, is that all components share the same two equipotential points. This means there can be only one value of voltage anywhere in the circuit, the exact same voltage for all components at any given time. The principle of voltage being the same across all parallel-connected components is also an expression of a more fundamental law of physics: the Conservation of Energy , in this case the conservation of specific potential energy which is the definition of voltage.

In order for voltage to differ between parallel-connected components, the potential energy of charge carriers would have to somehow appear and disappear to account for lesser and greater voltages.

The sum of all component currents must equal the total current in a parallel circuit, and total resistance will be less than the smallest individual resistance value:. The rule for calculating total resistance in a parallel circuit perplexes many students with its weird compound reciprocal notation. Conductance is defined as the reciprocal of resistance; that is, a measure of how easily electrical charge carriers may move through a substance.

If the electrical resistance of an object doubles, then it now has half the conductance it did before:. It should be intuitively apparent that conductances add in parallel circuits. That is, the total amount of conductance for a parallel circuit must be the sum total of all individual conductances, because the addition of more conductive pathways must make it easier overall for charge carriers to move through the circuit.

The formula shown here should be familiar to you. It has the same form as the total resistance formula for series circuits. Just as resistances add in series more series resistance makes the overall resistance to current increase , conductances add in parallel more conductive branches makes the overall conductance increase.

For both series and parallel circuits, total power dissipated by all load devices is equal to the total power delivered by all source devices. The configuration of a circuit is irrelevant to the balance between power supplied and power lost, because this balance is an expression of the Law of Energy Conservation. Don't have an Control account? Create one now. Forgot your password?

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IV - Control Vol. V - Reference Worksheets. The two circuit types are shown here, with squares representing any type of two-terminal electrical component: The defining characteristic of a series electrical circuit is it provides just one path for current.

It also means that the sum of all voltages dropped by load devices must equal the sum total of all source voltages, and that the total resistance of the circuit will be the sum of all individual resistances: The defining characteristic of a parallel circuit, by contrast, is that all components share the same two equipotential points. The sum of all component currents must equal the total current in a parallel circuit, and total resistance will be less than the smallest individual resistance value: The rule for calculating total resistance in a parallel circuit perplexes many students with its weird compound reciprocal notation. ## Difference Between Parallel And Series Circuits Pdf

Difference Between Series and Parallel Resonance. Figure 7: Shunt Parallel Negative Clipper. In such a circuit the diode acts as a closed switch for a negative input voltage i. V i O and as an open switch for a positive input voltage i. V i O the output waveform of the Circuit is the same as that of series negative clipper. A change in the resistance of one component will change the potential difference across all the components.

Oh no! Oh, you thought it would be funny to pull one of the bulbs out, and now the whole thing has gone belly up! Every year, millions of lights go dark around the world for one critical lesson — to teach you the difference between series and parallel circuits! The simplest of circuits, powering a light bulb with a battery. Say you have a strand of lights, connected one after the other. If you viewed this in a circuit, it would look something like this:. Your Christmas lights in series, notice the lights are all connected one after the other.

These rules fall neatly into two categories: series circuits and parallel circuits. The two circuit types are shown here, with squares representing any type of two-terminal electrical component:. The defining characteristic of a series electrical circuit is it provides just one path for current. This means there can be only one value for current anywhere in the circuit, the exact same current for all components at any given time. The principle of current being the same everywhere in a series circuit is actually an expression of a more fundamental law of physics: the Conservation of Charge , which states that electric charge cannot be created or destroyed. In order for current to have different values at different points in a series circuit indefinitely, electric charge would have to somehow appear and disappear to account for greater rates of charge flow in some areas than in others. ## Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuit

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Electricity is created when negatively charged particles, called electrons, move from one atom to another. In a series circuit, there is just a single path along which electrons can flow, so a break anywhere along the path interrupts the flow of electricity in the entire circuit. In a parallel circuit, there are two or more branches, creating separate pathways along which electrons can flow, so a break in one branch does not affect the flow of electricity in the others. In a parallel circuit, the current in each branch of the circuit is inversely proportional to the resistance of each branch, and the total current is equal to the sum of the currents in each branch. The voltage drop across each component is proportional to its resistance, such that the sum of the voltage drops is equal to the total voltage supplied by the source. ### Series and parallel circuits

Two-terminal components and Electrical networks can be connected in series or parallel. The resulting electrical network will have two terminals, and itself can participate in a series or parallel topology. Whether a two-terminal "object" is an electrical component e. Components connected in series are connected along a single "electrical path", and each component has the same current through it, equal to the current through the network. The voltage across the network is equal to the sum of the voltages across each component.

Circuits consisting of just one battery and one load resistance are very simple to analyze, but they are not often found in practical applications. Usually, we find circuits where more than two components are connected together. There are two basic ways in which to connect more than two circuit components: series and parallel. Here, we have three resistors labeled R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 connected in a long chain from one terminal of the battery to the other. 