Giovanni gentile origins and doctrine of fascism pdf
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- Giovanni Gentile
- The Doctrine of Fascism
- Origins and Doctrine of Fascism: With Selections from Other Works
This book presents some of the more significant writings produced shortly before and after the Fascist accession to power in Italy. It also presents a direct continuity between the Risorgimento and Fascism, and explores the continuity of doctrine in time prior to the advent of Fascism.
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Reaction and Reform. Fascism arose in Europe after World War I when many people yearned for national unity and strong leadership. In Italy, Benito Mussolini used his charisma to establish a powerful fascist state. He adopted the ancient Roman fasces as his symbol. This was a bundle of rods tied around an ax, which represented the power of Rome.
The Doctrine of Fascism
Benito Mussolini over the course of his lifetime went from Socialism - he was editor of Avanti , a socialist newspaper - to the leadership of a new political movement called "fascism" [after "fasces", the symbol of bound sticks used a totem of power in ancient Rome]. In Mussolini wrote with the help of Giovanni Gentile and entry for the Italian Encyclopedia on the definition of fascism. Fascism, the more it considers and observes the future and the development of humanity quite apart from political considerations of the moment, believes neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace. It thus repudiates the doctrine of Pacifism -- born of a renunciation of the struggle and an act of cowardice in the face of sacrifice. War alone brings up to its highest tension all human energy and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have courage to meet it. All other trials are substitutes, which never really put men into the position where they have to make the great decision -- the alternative of life or death The Fascist accepts life and loves it, knowing nothing of and despising suicide: he rather conceives of life as duty and struggle and conquest, but above all for others -- those who are at hand and those who are far distant, contemporaries, and those who will come after
In truth, the first part of the essay, entitled " Idee Fondamentali " Italian for '"Fundamental Ideas"' was written by philosopher Giovanni Gentile , while only the second part " Dottrina politica e sociale ", Italian for '"Political and social doctrine"' is the work of Mussolini himself. Although written in by Mussolini, with the help of Giovanni Gentile, it was first published in the fourteenth volume of Enciclopedia Italiana of , as the first section of a lengthy entry on "Fascismo" Italian for ' Fascism '. The entire entry on fascism spans pages — of the Enciclopedia Italiana , and includes numerous photographs and graphic images. The entry starts on page and ends on with the credit line "Benito Mussolini. A key concept of the Mussolini essay was that fascism was a rejection of previous models: "Granted that the XIXth century was the century of socialism, liberalism, democracy, this does not mean that the XXth century must also be the century of socialism, liberalism, democracy. Political doctrines pass; nations remain. We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the "right", a Fascist century.
Fascism , political ideology and mass movement that dominated many parts of central, southern, and eastern Europe between and and that also had adherents in western Europe, the United States , South Africa , Japan , Latin America, and the Middle East. At the end of World War II , the major European fascist parties were broken up, and in some countries such as Italy and West Germany they were officially banned. Beginning in the late s, however, many fascist-oriented parties and movements were founded in Europe as well as in Latin America and South Africa. The word fascism comes from the Latin fasces , which denotes a bundle of wooden rods that typically included a protruding axe blade. In ancient Rome , lictors attendants to magistrates would hold the fasces as a symbol of the penal power of their magistrate. The first European fascist, Benito Mussolini , adopted this symbol both to recall the greatness of the Roman Empire and to reinforce his authority as the eventual dictator of Italy.
Origins and Doctrine of Fascism: With Selections from Other Works
The self-styled "philosopher of Fascism", he was influential in providing an intellectual foundation for Italian Fascism , and ghostwrote part of The Doctrine of Fascism with Benito Mussolini. He was involved in the resurgence of Hegelian idealism in Italian philosophy and also devised his own system of thought, which he called " actual idealism " or "actualism", which has been described as "the subjective extreme of the idealist tradition". Giovanni Gentile was born in Castelvetrano , Sicily. He was inspired by Risorgimento -era Italian intellectuals such as Mazzini , Rosmini , Gioberti , and Spaventa from whom he borrowed the idea of autoctisi , "self-construction", but also was strongly influenced by the German idealist and materialist schools of thought — namely Karl Marx , Hegel , and Fichte , with whom he shared the ideal of creating a Wissenschaftslehre Epistemology , a theory for a structure of knowledge that makes no assumptions. Pesce insists that 'there is in fact no doubt that Gentile was a Catholic', but he occasionally identified himself as an atheist, albeit one who was still culturally a Catholic.