Christianity and anti christianity in their final conflict pdf
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The issue of a second edition of this book gives an opportunity to notice some objections, and, also, to re- move some misapprehensions of its aim which have found expression in various criticisms. The chief burden of these criticisms is that the book is pessimistic in its tone. It is said by one: "It does not acknowledge that there are any Christian tendencies; everything in our age is antichristian. We may assume that these writers accept as true the Lord's words : "All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth"; and believe that in due time He will mani- fest this power in a kingdom of righteousness and peace which will embrace all nations.
Christianity and Anti-Christianity In Their Final Conflict
Black clergy members stand with other attendees during a Mass for racial healing on Castle Island in South Boston on June 13, There is a commonly held but misleading perception in U. While the Trump administration purports to help this narrow band of religious Americans, the reality is that many of its policies have harmed all religious communities—particularly religious minorities.
To understand the needs and concerns of all American faith communities, it is important to first understand the religious diversity of the nation.
While 3 in 4 Americans identify with a religious tradition, only 15 percent identify as white evangelicals, according to the American Values Atlas Survey.
Public opinion polling reveals that even the so-called benefits of the Trump administration to those select faith groups crusading against reproductive and LGBTQ rights are rejected by majorities within faith communities other than white evangelicals. The administration has systematically targeted religious freedom both at home and abroad, including through its marquee policy priority of instituting a Muslim ban.
The administration has also presided over a nation with an alarming uptick in anti-Semitic and Islamophobic hate crimes, and its policies have contributed to a climate conducive to white nationalism.
Since it took office, the administration has weaponized a narrow set of conservative Christian beliefs in order to harm others. This type of religious nationalism was on display when President Donald Trump and senior members of his administration had peaceful protesters and clergy tear-gassed outside the White House in order to stage a photo-op outside St. It interprets religious freedom as a license to discriminate against non-Christians, LGBTQ people, and people seeking out reproductive health care.
Furthermore, it does not reflect the religious values of a majority of people of faith, whose faiths call them to love, not harm, their fellow human beings.
The chaotic and mismanaged response to the COVID pandemic has been especially harmful for faith communities, as the administration has tacitly encouraged them to continue large in-person worship gatherings despite the risks and despite public health guidance. But the attacks on faith communities started long before the pandemic, with the administration cutting social services administered by many faith-based community organizations and instituting corporate tax cuts that harmed small nonprofits, including houses of worship.
The administration has repeatedly suggested to faith communities that they need not adhere to public health guidance—going so far as to claim that houses of worship would be reopening by Easter, 7 despite experts not pointing to this as a safe date.
When the CDC finally released the guidance, it omitted advice for houses of worship. This was dangerous for all in attendance given that at least five members of the choir and orchestra at the church tested positive for the coronavirus earlier that month, according to BuzzFeed News. The choir performed without masks. Many faith communities have transitioned to online services or other highly modified in-person activities in order to protect their congregants and communities during the deadly pandemic.
At the end of May , Trump declared houses of worship essential and threatened to override governors who did not reopen them. Despite this, the authority of the president to enforce reopenings remains limited. Throughout its response, the administration has not prioritized the health of faith communities yet claimed to be acting to protect their liberty. In April , U. Attorney General William Barr told faith leaders on a call that he was concerned about the religious freedom implications of COVIDrelated restrictions.
Department of Justice to formally review and challenge state public health orders, particularly those limiting religious gatherings. Gavin Newsom, Governor of California, et al.
The precise question of when restrictions on particular social activities should be lifted during the pandemic is a dynamic and fact-intensive matter subject to reasonable disagreement. Indeed, some of these rulings allow far-reaching exemptions for religious institutions from other laws and regulations—exemptions that provide a license to discriminate.
Yet in these cases, the court could not find any justification for exemptions from coronavirus-related restrictions. Rather, the religious freedom arguments brought to the fore by this administration have led these faith communities to place their concerns not in the seriousness of the coronavirus threat but in the misguided belief that elected officials would have an interest in shutting down their houses of worship. Yet the Trump administration has consistently undermined the rights of religious minorities.
Executive order blocked entry of people from Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen, for at least 90 days, in addition to other provisions curtailing refugee admissions. In response, thousands of Americans rushed to airports across the country to stage protests. Five federal judges soon ruled in defense of religious freedom, temporarily blocking the Muslim ban. Moreover, despite several opportunities to do so, President Trump has never disavowed any of his prior statements about Islam.
Instead, he has continued to make remarks that a reasonable observer would view as an unrelenting attack on the Muslim religion and its followers.
The three attempts to enact the Muslim ban and defend them in court coincided with an unsurprising rise in anti-Muslim incidents in the United States. Chuck Schumer D-NY wearing a turban. Anti-Semitic incidents and rhetoric have also proliferated during the Trump administration.
In August , white nationalists held a now infamous rally called Unite the Right in Charlottesville, Virginia. Anti-Semitism also has repeatedly come from the administration itself.
Gorka has close ties to a Hungarian neo-Nazi group. According to an analysis of data compiled by the Anti-Defamation League ADL , counties where Trump held a rally in saw a percent increase in hate crimes over comparable counties that did not have rallies. Public opinion data paint a dark picture of the experience of religious minorities before and during the Trump administration.
According to data from the ADL, 63 percent of Jews say their communities are less safe than they were a decade ago and more than half of Jews in the last five years have experienced or witnessed an incident they believed to be connected to anti-Semitism. The Trump administration has also destroyed U. And in February , parts of Monument Hill were blasted for the construction of the border wall.
Despite figures such as Rep. The Trump administration has also turned its back on religious minorities around the world. That drop reflects an overall decrease in U. In the last year of the Obama administration, the United States resettled 31, religious minorities.
In the fiscal year, under the Trump administration, the country resettled only around 9, religious minorities, 61 as the overall number of refugees arriving has dramatically decreased.
Christians accounted for 79 percent of refugees who came to the United States in the fiscal year. According to an analysis by the International Rescue Committee, U. The Trump administration has used religious nationalism to cover for policies that, far from reflecting many faith values, actually threaten the most vulnerable in society.
In addition to serving as a cover, religious nationalism is a threat to the core American principle of the separation of church and state and risks the right of people of faith to freely exercise their faith in a pluralistic society. One prominent example was the launch of a Christians Against Christian Nationalism campaign in August The Trump administration has most explicitly advanced this agenda through the widespread use of harmful religious exemptions. These exemptions have allowed even for-profit institutions to discriminate against religious minorities, LGBTQ people, women, and others, if they cite a religious reason for doing so.
One of the groups harmed by these religious exemptions are people seeking reproductive health care. The U. Department of Health and Human Services HHS has issued two final rules that would allow employers to deny women insurance coverage for contraceptive services through religious and moral exemptions.
This rule would allow health care workers to opt out of providing reproductive care because of their religious beliefs. It was vacated by the courts in November , and the case is headed to a Court of Appeals. Most recently, the U. Ironically, one of the primary communities harmed by these religious exemptions are people of faith—the very individuals these religious exemptions purport to protect.
For example, Miracle Hill, a federally funded evangelical foster care agency in South Carolina, openly discriminated against a Catholic prospective foster parent and a Jewish prospective foster parent on the basis of their religious affiliations. Both parents sued, and in January , the Trump administration granted a waiver to the state of South Carolina to allow Miracle Hill to continue its discriminatory practices. The rise of religious nationalism equates social conservatism with religion at large, leading to the incorrect conclusion that only socially conservative views are in need of religious freedom protections.
Religious nationalism also seeks to deflect or silence the concerns of the vast majority of Christians who do not share these conservative views. During one of the protests in Washington, D. In , a man intentionally burned down three Black churches in Louisiana. The concerns of Black Christians, faithful protestors in support of Black Lives Matter, and religious minorities do not align with this agenda, which fails to grant all Americans equal protection under the law.
The Trump administration has undermined democratic norms and violated ethics laws that many religious groups have championed. People of faith depend on democratic norms for freedom of religion and often for protections of their identities. With safeguards under attack, the actions of the administration extend far beyond partisan differences, threatening many of the core institutions of the democratic system and leaving people of faith in an increasingly precarious position.
Many religious leaders naturally prefer this prohibition as a means of protecting their houses of worship from interference from partisan politics.
Meanwhile, the administration has further eroded the separation of church and state by pushing for more taxpayer funding for private religious schools 94 and lifting important restrictions on religious organizations. One notable example was the issuance of not one, but nine, new regulations in January and February that undermine the separation of church and state. Montana Department of Revenue. On June 30, , the court ruled in favor of this agenda, with the five conservative justices forming the majority.
There have been various avenues through which President Trump has weakened other democratic norms supported by faith communities. In December , President Trump was impeached in the U. House of Representatives for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress, with evidence confirming that he withheld military aid from Ukraine, using the power of the presidency for his political gain.
Mitt Romney R-UT was a notable exception, repeatedly citing his Mormon faith in a speech on the Senate floor as the reason he made the politically risky decision to vote in favor of impeachment. The administration has also threatened the right to free assembly, which faith communities rely upon for worship and other communal activities.
As referenced earlier in the context of the Black Lives Matter protests, the Trump administration has attempted to limit the right to peacefully protest, an important activity for many faith communities, even proposing to limit the ability to protest near the White House and National Mall.
Finally, the Trump administration is openly targeting vote-by-mail efforts by making baseless claims of widespread voter fraud and attacking the U. Postal Service. Faith communities are among those leading civic engagement efforts across the country, including through well-known programs such as Souls to the Polls. Provisions of the bill negatively affected small nonprofits, including many houses of worship.
This will have a devastating impact on houses of worship and faith-based community and social services. The tax law also hurt religious groups by repealing the estate tax. A analysis from CAP estimated that charitable bequests specifically to religious groups would be the hardest hit by this move.
By substantially increasing federal deficits to dole out top-heavy tax cuts, the tax law also put the programs that serve low-income and vulnerable Americans at much greater risk. When the bill was proposed, Bishop Frank Dewane said on behalf of the U. Studies also indicate that the majority of emergency food providers under federally funded programs such as the Temporary Emergency Food Assistance Program are faith based. Rather, it must encompass the needs and concerns of all religious Americans.
Numerous administration policies have placed people of faith and their houses of worship at greater risk for hate crimes, religious persecution, and even disease, along with cutting support for social services.
Samuel James Andrews
Christians are one of the most underrepresented groups in science, and one potential explanation is that scientists have a bias against Christian students, which could discourage and actively prevent Christian students from becoming scientists. Although there is a general perception in society that there is bias against Christians in science, we do not know whether science students, who frequently interact with scientists, perceive this bias. Further, no researchers have attempted to experimentally document the existence of bias against Christians in science. To address these gaps in the literature, we designed three studies. In the first study, we found that college science students report a perceived bias against Christians in science and that evangelical Christians perceive greater bias than Catholic and non-Christian students. Then in two studies, biology professors evaluated Ph.
Geoffrey D. Studies in Late Antiquity 1 June ; 3 2 : — Religious conflict in Late Antiquity has become a topic of increasing interest, judging by the volumes that have appeared in the Transformation of the Classical Heritage series over the past decade, as well as other stand-alone volumes from various publishing houses. Many of them, with an eye to current events, have focused on the link between religious extremism and violence. Yet, most are aware that violence takes many forms and may not always be the best descriptor.
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Faith and Reason
In the Book of Revelation, the apocalyptic hopes of the early Christian community find their clearest and most complete expression. Apocalypticism was not a new phenomenon among Christians; it was a well-established belief among Jews, who held that the coming of the kingdom of God would not be brought about by a gradual transformation but by a sudden intervention, when God would end the present age and establish his kingdom in the world made new. This conception of coming events is associated with the belief that prior to this future time, the struggle between the forces of good and evil will become more intense. As the evil powers grow stronger, they will inflict persecution and in some instances even death upon those who follow a course of righteousness. The struggle will eventually reach a climax, at which time God will intervene, destroy the forces of evil, and set up a new order in which the righteous will live for all time to come.
Traditionally, faith and reason have each been considered to be sources of justification for religious belief. Because both can purportedly serve this same epistemic function, it has been a matter of much interest to philosophers and theologians how the two are related and thus how the rational agent should treat claims derived from either source. Some have held that there can be no conflict between the two—that reason properly employed and faith properly understood will never produce contradictory or competing claims—whereas others have maintained that faith and reason can or even must be in genuine contention over certain propositions or methodologies. Those who have taken the latter view disagree as to whether faith or reason ought to prevail when the two are in conflict.
Black clergy members stand with other attendees during a Mass for racial healing on Castle Island in South Boston on June 13, There is a commonly held but misleading perception in U. While the Trump administration purports to help this narrow band of religious Americans, the reality is that many of its policies have harmed all religious communities—particularly religious minorities. To understand the needs and concerns of all American faith communities, it is important to first understand the religious diversity of the nation.
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Вы не шутите. - Если бы я шутил… Я поставил его вчера в одиннадцать тридцать вечера. Шифр до сих пор не взломан.