Spectroscopy of rubber and rubber materials pdf
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- Fourier Transform Infrared Spectral Analysis of Polyisoprene of a Different Microstructure
- Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR
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Fourier Transform Infrared Spectral Analysis of Polyisoprene of a Different Microstructure
Mechanical tests, for example, tensile and hardness tests, are usually used to evaluate the properties of rubber materials. All of the samples were then scanned using a FT-NIR spectrometer and fitted with an integration sphere working in a diffused reflectance mode. The spectra were correlated with hardness and tensile properties. Partial least square PLS calibration models were built from the spectra datasets with preprocessing techniques, that is, smoothing and second derivative. This indicated that reasonably accurate models, that is, with a coefficient of determination [ ] of the validation greater than 0. This study demonstrated that FT-NIR analysis can be applied to determine hardness and tensile values in rubbers and rubber blends effectively.
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Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR
The combination of its unique morphology, physical properties, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness make natural rubber an appealing constituent for many materials and applications. This comprehensive two volume set covers the synthesis, characterization and applications of natural rubber based blends, interpenetrating polymer networks, composites and nanocomposites. Volume 1 covers different types of natural rubber-based blends and IPNs as well as manufacturing methods, thermo mechanical characterization techniques, life cycle analysis and their applications. Volume 2 focuses on natural rubber-based composites and Nanocomposites including the different types of fillers, the filler-matrix reinforcement mechanisms, manufacturing techniques, and applications. This is the first book to consolidate the current state of the art information on natural rubber based materials with contributions from established international experts in the field. The book provides a "one stop" reference resource for professionals, researchers, industrial practitioners, graduate students, and senior undergraduates in the fields of polymer science and engineering, materials science, surface science, bioengineering and chemical engineering. He received Ph.
Through the choice, calculation, and comparison with the corresponding absorption peaks of FTIR, a method based on the results of the analysis has been developed for the determination of the microstructure contents of polyisoprene by FTIR. As it is well known, polyisoprene PIp is one kind of important rubbers, and there are four kinds of microstructure in its molecular chain which are cis -1,4-, trans -1,4-, 1,2-, and 3,4-polyisoprene. The main ingredient of nature rubber is cis -1,4- or trans -1,4-polyisoprene. For example, Hevea brasiliensis the Brazilian rubber tree is polyisoprene with more than 5, cis -1,4-repeat units except for the transinitiator residue of repeat units ranging from 1 to 4, depending on the plant species. Gutta-percha, Balata, or Malaysian rubber is polyisoprene with trans -1,4-repeat units [ 1 — 4 ]. Since English chemist Michael Faraday found that the structure unit of nature rubber was C 5 H 8 , the research of synthetic polyisoprene keeps active [ 1 — 7 ].
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Detection and quantification of tread wear particles in the environment have been a challenge owing to lack of a robust method. Tire rubber materials in tire granules RM and a combination of water and carbon dioxide were the components identified in all samples. Decomposing the overlying components in the spectral data into different components, and predicting unknown quantity in both sample types, the method proves robust in identifying and quantifying tire particles from sediments. Tread wear particles has become an environmental concern because of their significant global microplastics contribution [ 1 , 2 ]. Vehicle tires release about
Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with a diamond ATR crystal was used to examine 41 historical polymer fragments and a selection of polyurethane fragments subjected to accelerated ageing. The advantages and limitations of FTIR data for polymer assessment is discussed. Moreover the efficacy of the data interpretation tool principal component analysis PCA is debated for potential applications in polymer characterisation and polymer degradation. Curved surfaces could be tolerated when spectral data were carefully collected, similarly opaque samples could be analysed due to the reflective nature of the FTIR technique used.
Dinsmore, Don C. Rubber Chemistry and Technology 1 June ; 22 2 : — This report describes an investigation of the applicability of infrared spectro-scopic methods to the quantitative determination of the elastomer composition of industrial rubber products. Generally satisfactory techniques for obtaining a valid spectrum of the elastomer content of any rubber specimen have been developed and evaluated and have been applied to the development of detailed analytical procedures for the identification and qualitative analysis of elastomer mixtures, to the quantitative analysis of natural-GR-S blends, and to the determination of the nitrile content of nitrile copolymers. The methods can be extended to analogous problems with a minimum of alteration, and the same order of accuracy can be expected in general. A discussion of the correlations between spectral absorption and molecular structure is also included. Infrared spectroscopy is finding increasing application as a means for the identification of organic materials and the analysis of complex mixtures.
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of information on rubber-type materials and their (time-dependent) modifications, ie, their 3 Vibrational Spectroscopic Investigations of Rubber preservationscience//Tennentpdf, last checkd