Functions of different parts of brain and spinal cord pdf creator
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The spinal cord is the bundle of nerves and other tissue that connects brain to body. It carries instructions about movement from the brain, and information about sensation to the brain. It runs from the base of the brain down through the cervical spine in the neck and the thoracic spine in the upper and mid-back. There it ends—the spinal cord does not actually run the entire length of the spine. After the spinal cord ends, in the lumbar lower spine, is the cauda equina : the bundle of nerve roots that branch out to the legs.
Vertebral LVs connect to peripheral sensory and sympathetic ganglia and form metameric vertebral circuits connecting to lymph nodes and the thoracic duct. They drain the epidural space and the dura mater around the spinal cord and associate with leukocytes. Vertebral LVs remodel extensively after spinal cord injury and VEGF-C-induced vertebral lymphangiogenesis exacerbates the inflammatory responses, T cell infiltration and demyelination following focal spinal cord lesion.
Therefore, vertebral LVs add to skull meningeal LVs as gatekeepers of CNS immunity and may be potential targets to improve the maintenance and repair of spinal tissues. The lymphatic vasculature controls fluid homeostasis, macromolecular clearance, and immune responses in peripheral tissues 1 , 2. The brain was long considered to lack lymphatic vasculature, which has raised questions about how the cerebral interstitial fluid is cleared of waste products 3 , 4 and how immune surveillance of the brain is maintained 5 , 6 , 7.
This fluid is formed by water and small solutes that are exchanged through the capillary walls between the blood vessels and the brain.
It has a similar composition to the cerebrospinal fluid CSF which drains the brain ventricles and meninges and is mainly produced in the choroid plexus 8. The CSF has been proposed to dynamically exchange with interstitial fluid along glial lymphatic glymphatic non-vascular periarterial routes, without crossing the endothelial cell layer, and subsequently to be cleared from the brain into the subarachnoid space via similar perivenous routes 6 , 9.
The CSF outflow system involves specific extracranial lymphatic vasculature beds 10 , In mice, cranial mLVs are mainly aligned alongside large dural venous sinuses, meningeal arteries and cranial nerves.
Along the sagittal suture, the cranial lymphatic vasculature is valveless with small-diameter LVs, while it forms a larger network with valves and capillaries located adjacent to the subarachnoid space toward the basal aspects of the skull 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , Cranial mLVs in the basal parts of the skull were initially shown to transport fluorescent tracers toward dcLNs via foramina at the base of the skull The basal mLVs include capillaries located adjacent to the subarachnoid space that have button-like junctions, allowing CSF uptake for the clearance of CSF macromolecules Using multiphoton microscopy, macromolecule and cell transport was reported also in mLVs alongside the superior sagittal and transverse sinuses 17 , and consistent results were obtained by MRI imaging of primate and human mLs Meningeal lymphatic vasculature also exists in the skull of primates, including common marmoset monkeys and humans 14 , The meningeal lymphatic vasculature develops later than the rest of the lymphatic network, first appearing at birth in the basal parts of the skull, then expanding during the neonatal period along dural blood vessels whose vascular smooth muscle cells supply the VEGF-C Immuno-histology on whole-mount preparations or cryosections showed that, during the first weeks after birth, LVs also developed a large network closely attached to the vertebral column These vertebral lymphatic vessels vLVs occur mainly in intervertebral spaces, having different morphology ventrally and dorsally, as well as along spinal nerve rami when exciting the spinal canal.
Cranial mLVs located dorsally around the cisterna magna and ventrally around the foramen magnum appeared to be connected to vertebral LVs Further characterization confirmed that lymphatic vasculature extended caudally into into the whole vertebral canal and connected from there to the peripheral lymphatic vessels, as proposed by seminal papers 19 , We wanted to produce a three-dimensional 3D -map of the vertebral lymphatic system that respects structural interactions between the spinal cord and meninges, the surrounding bone and mesenchymal environment and the neighboring peripheral nervous system PNS.
This required us to preserve the overall bone structures around the CNS while simultaneously accessing and labeling the LVs of meninges contained within the protective layers of muscular and skeletal tissues. Here, we report that vertebral lymphatics are predominantly localized in the epidural space above the dura mater and drain tracers injected into the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord toward thoracic mediastinal lymph nodes.
In addition, we show that VEGF-C-induced vertebral lymphangiogenesis exacerbates immune-cell infiltration and cytotoxic demyelination of spinal cord lesions in the lysolecithin LPC -induced focal demyelination model In the CNS, photoablation of the skull meningeal lymphatic vasculature has been reported to reduce the inflammatory response of brain-reactive T cells around demyelinated lesions in the EAE experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis Therefore, the vertebral lymphatic system conveys an additional remote control of immune surveillance to the CNS.
Segmental pattern of the vertebral lymphatic vasculature in the thoracic spine. LF: ligamentum flavum, red asterisk: ventral vertebral body, blue arrow: facet joint FJ , red arrowhead: ventral intervertebral disk, blue asterisk: intervertebral foramen. Red and blue areas correspond to two successive vertebrae. Note LVs lining ligamentum flavum.
Salmon arrows: intervertebral LVs, blue arrow: dorsal LVs. Despite labeling of some non-LECs, both markers clearly revealed a dense lymphatic network that was present between vertebrae and appeared mainly confined to the intervertebral spaces Fig.
A few longitudinal vessels linked adjacent intervertebral lymphatic circuits together along the spinal cord salmon arrows in Fig. Vertebral LVs vLVs were also connected to the peripheral lymphatic system surrounding the vertebrae, dorsally through the ligamentum flavum Fig. We next used Imaris-3D software to illustrate the anatomy of vLV circuits. Images were then segmented to generate a color-coded map of vLV circuits. In Fig. This confirms a metameric organization of vLVs We next mapped the vLV network in the vertebral canal from the dorsal to the ventral part of a vertebra.
Dorsally, semicircular lymphatic vessels navigate around the spinal cord Fig. At the ventral border of the ligamentum flavum, located at the dorsal midline between two spinous processes, these vLVs contact lymphatic branches entering the epidural space from the overlying dense peripheral lymphatic vasculature Fig.
Laterally, at the level of the transverse facet joints, semicircular vessels including peripheral lymphatic vessels from the dorsal plexus converge toward a lymphatic circle blue arrow in Fig.
From this point, vLVs distribute either radially toward the periphery, or ventrally toward the emergence of the dorsal spinal nerve roots red double arrow in Fig. At the intervertebral foramen, DRGs are covered by vLVs that converge from the ventral and dorsolateral circuits at their proximal and distal end, respectively arrowheads in Fig.
In addition to these two circuits, a few longitudinal connecting vessels link vertebral lymphatic units together Fig.
Ventrally, a second circuit of semicircular lymphatic vessels converges toward the ventral spinal nerve rami exit, while no lymphatic vessels are observed at the ventral midline Fig. Modular architecture of vertebral lymphatic vasculature.
Red asterisk: vertebral ventral body, SC: spinal cord spatial orientation D: dorsal, L: lateral, V: ventral. Note circles of LVs bordering the upper side of the epidural space ES. Blue dotted-lines: spinal nerve roots, red dotted-lines: DRG. Longitudinal connecting vessels between vertebral units are not represented. Black letters refer to images in c — g. Complementary analyses by high resolution confocal imaging on vertebral column cryosections showed that the connection between LVs and sympathetic ganglia Fig.
These data reveal a hitherto unknown anatomical interaction between the autonomous nervous system and lymphatic vessels derived from vLVs. Vertebral lymphatic vessel connections with sympathetic ganglia. White dotted-lines: DRG. White box: area magnified in h and i. Note a second ventral LV branch running along the SG, without entering its cortical layer h , salmon arrow. This branch is also seen in panel b salmon arrow. We next examined the lymphatic vasculature at the cervical and thoracic level of the vertebral column.
Stereomicroscopic imaging of whole-mount preparations revealed LVs around the cisterna magna and within the vertebral canal, where they located at the level of intervertebral ligaments and surrounding spinal nerve rami Supplementary Fig. The LV patterning in cervical vertebrae and along the vertebral column was then analyzed in further detail by volume imaging. In the cervical region, we observed a dorsal extravertebral lymphatic plexus blue arrow, Fig.
Thoracic vLVs were defined by a large dorsal extravertebral plexus blue arrow, Fig. The thoracic and lumbar regions displayed similar extensions and patterns of extravertebral and intravertebral LVs Fig. In lumbar vertebrae, the ventrolateral circuits that exited on each side of the vertebral canal connected to lymph nodes.
As shown in green in Fig. Therefore, the vLV architecture is conserved along the vertebral column, but the extension of extravertebral and intravertebral vessels around the spinal cord and their connection to the peripheral lymphatic system differs between the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebral levels. Variations of vLV pattern along the vertebral column.
Left panels show frontal views, right panels show connection to peripheral lymph nodes LN and thoracic duct TD. Red asterisk: vertebral ventral body; SC: spinal cord; Ao: Aorta.
To obtain a 3D annotation of vLV localization in the spinal canal and meninges, PROX1-labeled vertebral volumetric images were used to generate segmented images of membranes and the epidural space around the spinal cord. We manually annotated in 3D the meninges, the epidural space and ligamentum flavum Fig.
We also present color-coded layer masks for the arachnoid and dura mater together purple area in Fig. As shown on a lateral view Fig. Interestingly, connecting vessels between two successive vertebrae salmon arrows in Fig. Scheme representing the anatomy of vLVs in the thoracic vertebral canal is shown in Fig.
Epidural and dural lymphatic circuits of the spine. A color-coded segmentation of layers around the spinal cord shows the meningeal layers in purple and the dura mater plus the epidural space in green. A noticeable LV network fills the epidural space green while dura mater LVs white are mainly restricted to DRGs white arrows and few branches on each side of the dorsal and ventral midline.
LVs are present in the epidural space green around the spinal cord and in the dura mater purple. Extravertebral LVs extend dorsal processes blue and ventral connections with sympathetic ganglia SG, deep blue and the thoracic duct TD, light blue. Blue arrowheads; exit points of vertebral lymphatic circuits; Blue dots: connections with extravertebral lymphatic networks; Black asterisk: vertebral ventral body; DRG: dorsal root ganglia; FJ: facet joint; LF: ligamentum flavum; SC: spinal cord; SG: sympathetic ganglia.
Complementary examination of whole-mounted spinal cord meninges Supplementary Fig. The function of the vLV system was explored by testing the drainage potential of epidural and dura mater vLVs. It is worth noting that this surgery procedure punctures the dura mater, which allows access of injected tracer into the epidural space located above spinal meninges, locally at the puncture site.
Epidural and dural lymphatic drainage. Fifteen or forty-five minutes later, mice were sacrificed. Schema is adapted from Fig. Asterisk: vertebral ventral body, SC: spinal cord.
Therefore, vLVs provide a regional outflow for epidural fluids toward lymph nodes. A schematic model of the thoraco-lumbar lymphatic drainage circuitry is shown in Fig.
One month later, mice were analyzed by PROX1 immunostaining.
Due to the central nervous system's CNS inhibitory microenvironment that presents challenges in neuron repair and regeneration, tissue engineering strategies have received significant attention to improve the quality of a patient's life. In this regard, hydrogels are attractive SC scaffolds as they can provide not only an adjustable physiologically native-like microenvironment but also an appropriate matrix for cell delivery, drug delivery, and other bioactive molecule delivery at the lesion site. This systematic review characterizes the widely used biomaterials including natural polymers; protein- and polysaccharide-based synthetic polymers; methacrylate- and polyethylene glycol-based, and self-assembling SA peptides. In addition, synthesis routes of hydrogels are investigated. This review is complemented by the discussion of the various techniques utilized for hydrogel scaffold designs with their in vitro and in vivo outcomes and clinical trials. The existing challenges and opportunities for SC hydrogel scaffolds are mentioned towards the end of this review. If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center.
Cranial nerve , in vertebrates, any of the paired nerves of the peripheral nervous system that connect the muscles and sense organs of the head and thoracic region directly to the brain. Lower vertebrates fishes, amphibians have 10 pairs. A 13th pair, a plexus branching network known as the terminal nerve CN 0 , is sometimes also recognized in humans, though whether it is a vestigial structure or a functioning nerve is unclear. Cranial nerves are made up of motor neurons , sensory neurons, or both. They are named for their function or structure; for example, the trigeminal nerve consists of three primary branches, while the vestibulocochlear nerve serves the organs of equilibrium and hearing. The vagus nerve is one of the most important; it extends to many of the organs in the chest and upper abdomen.
coordination are said to be functions of prefrontal cortex; but cerebellum, the Descartes: Those from the “hard” sciences know of Rene Descartes as the creator of analytic endowed with a brain and spinal cord, and other key structures like.
The brainstem, where the brain connects to the spinal cord, controls such basic functions as breathing, heartbeat, and other critical functions. Tumors that develop in this area of the brain are especially difficult to treat, since any intervention in the area can cause devastating neurological damage. Gliomas can develop in many different locations in the brain, but brainstem gliomas are very challenging, especially because they occur primarily during childhood and adolescence. Brainstem gliomas, which are rare in adults, account for approximately 15 percent of childhood brain tumors.
He travelled over the world exerting his skills: a successful physician, and an innovative researcher, with a very ample range of interests. His favored subject was the nervous system. The spinal cord was studied extensively, with novel and important discoveries on the sensory pathways.
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A brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. It is located in the head , usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. It is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 14—16 billion neurons ,  and the estimated number of neurons in the cerebellum is 55—70 billion. These neurons typically communicate with one another by means of long fibers called axons , which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. Physiologically , brains exert centralized control over a body's other organs. They act on the rest of the body both by generating patterns of muscle activity and by driving the secretion of chemicals called hormones.
Weighing in at three pounds, on average, this spongy mass of fat and protein is made up of two overarching types of cells—called glia and neurons—and it contains many billions of each. Neurons are notable for their branch-like projections called axons and dendrites, which gather and transmit electrochemical signals. Different types of glial cells provide physical protection to neurons and help keep them, and the brain, healthy. Together, this complex network of cells gives rise to every aspect of our shared humanity. We could not breathe, play, love, or remember without the brain.
PDF | Cranial lymphatic vessels (LVs) are involved in the transport of fluids, macromolecules and central nervous system (CNS) immune responses. the brain ventricles and meninges and is mainly produced in the segment of the thoracic spinal cord, and areas where higher with Imaris File Converter to IMS ﬁles.