Anti discriminatory practice in health and social care ppt to pdf

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anti discriminatory practice in health and social care ppt to pdf

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As the next generation of social workers in a continent bedecked by oppressive customs, it is cardinal that the voices of social work students be heard. This study aims to share the reflections of Nigerian BSW students about anti-oppressive approach to professional practice. Drawing on a qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted among fourth-year social work students at one of the elite universities in the southern region of Nigeria.

Results reveal that, although willing to challenge oppressive practices, social work students are ill-equipped to apply anti-oppressive approach to social work practice in Nigeria. This study makes an important contribution to the field and to the existing literature because the findings have broader implications for social work education in Nigeria. The application of the anti-oppressive approach to social work practice is integral to ridding society of all forms of overt social injustice and other forms of latent oppressive policies.

Suggestions are offered to Nigerian social work educators toward ensuring that students are not only well equipped in the understanding of anti-oppressive social work but also ready to apply this model to professional social work practice following their graduation. Amadasun, S. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article for both commercial and non-commercial purposes , subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors.

Unique to the social work profession is the focus on people in their environment, allowing for the usage of varying degrees of practice approach conducive for meeting individual, group and community challenges and also advancing socioeconomic justice Weiss-Gal , , ; Thompson, ; Amadasun, ; Haynes, ; Miller et al.

One such approach that is integral to the attainment of the dual mission of the social work profession is anti-oppressive practice. Such a practice model is particularly germane to the African context given the pervasive acts of social injustice and human rights infringements, deriving from both age-old and novel oppressive policies and practices.

Yet, there is slim evidence regarding the extent to which social workers are being prepared to practice from an anti-oppressive perspective in the continent. The focus of this study, therefore, is to share the reflections of social work students in Nigeria regarding their knowledge of this practice approach.

Significantly, as the next generation of practitioners in the region as a whole, what social work students know about anti-oppressive practice would prove cardinal in: mainstreaming social work as a social justice-oriented profession in a context in which the relevance of the profession is increasingly being called to question Mmatli, ; Mupedziswa, ; and.

Furthermore, this study will be making an important contribution to the field by providing an African perspective a marginal voice to the anti-oppressive discourse of the social work profession. The section that follows includes a brief review of the relevant literature of anti-oppressive practice. Following the consideration of the research limitations, this paper concludes by offering suggestions to social work education in Nigeria.

Discourse on anti-oppressive practice must first begin with a conceptual clarification of what oppression represents. Oppression is seen as a social construction to create a categorical organization of people and groups within societies Baines, ; Cudd, ; Dalrymple and Burke, Such categorical organization derives from the concept of intersectionality, in which societies label and oppress individuals and groups, thereby creating multitudes of categories.

As Baines points out, multiple social labels are often wielded in discriminating against powerless individuals and groups on the basis of race, gender, class and so forth. By implication, identity and societal labels play a pivotal role in allocating power and privilege to different societal members such that powerful individuals, groups and systems marginalize and oppress other groups.

Phrased alternatively, oppression is typified in the form of interpersonal discrimination and prejudicial policies wielded or enacted by powerful groups and institutions.

Anti-oppressive practice is a social justice-oriented practice model or approach embraced by a wide swath of social workers in clinical, community and policy settings which is taught in a number of schools or departments of social work around the world Adams et al.

It draws its strength primarily from its compassionate embrace of humanity in all its diversity and adversity, as well as its unflinching commitment to social justice in both long- and immediate-term. Anti-oppressive practice, rather being a unipolar approach to practice, is an integrated model drawing on a number of social justice-oriented approaches to social work practice, including feminist, Marxist, critical, postmodernist, indigenous, poststructuralist, critical constructionist, anticolonial and antiracist and discriminatory perspectives Baines, ; Dominelli , , ; Millar, ; Waaldijk, ; Dalrymple and Burke , , ; Cocker and Hafford-Letchfield, ; Garrett, At the most basic level, it aims to analyze how power is used to oppress and marginalize people and how such power can be equally used to fast-track the liberation and empowerment of people across a broad spectrum of social settings, relations or systems Tew, Charity and social justice movements are the major roots necessitating the emergence of anti-oppressive practice in social work Wilson and Beresford, ; Thompson , , Social work, in being a unique profession, contains several distinct approaches and philosophies regarding care, what it constitutes and how to stop or slow social problems that generate the need for care.

As some scholars noted, these interventions did little more than place leaky Band-Aids on deeply rooted social problems, failing to challenge systems that exposed the poor and sustained the wealthy Mullaly, ; Thompson, ; Millar, ; Preston-Shoot, At about this same period, other groups such as the settlement house movement popularized by Jane Addams, another prominent founder of the social work profession began to advocate for a macro focus in their practice approach.

This intervention strategy allowed these workers to not only relieve people of their emotional pain and immediate difficulties but also challenge structural forces that perpetuate poverty, inequality and other forms of social injustice. Put together, these efforts, as Haynes pointed out, were fundamental in the enthronement of social work as social justice-inclined profession. Today, the commitment to developing socially just ways of practicing social work is palpable in policy statements of international social work-governing bodies.

For instance, the International Federation of Social Workers, in its recent definition of social work, asserted that principles of social justice and human rights are fundamental to the profession IFSW, Such entrenchment of social justice orientation to practice underscores the import of an anti-oppressive perspective in social work practice.

The anti-oppressive practice offers a viable alternative to the prevailing remedial or mainstream social work practice in the continent. Depoliticization involves processes that discountenance the influence of politics or that relegate political awareness out of social issues to control these issues and those seeking to change it.

While often claiming the opposite, mainstream social work emphasizes individual shortcomings, pathologies and inadequacies instead of structural dysfunction or deficiency Amadasun, In contrast, anti-oppressive approach to practice concentrates on changing oppressive policies and practices even as it addresses an immediate crisis. Scholars such as Dominelli , Thompson and Baines accept that anti-oppressive social work re-politicizes issues while acknowledging the problems that service users undergo as stemming from socially conditioned limited choices in which service users have little awareness, power and control.

Additionally, anti-oppressive practice acknowledges the power of language to shape identities and opportunities, and hence practitioners relying on this model are careful of their use of language by avoiding derogatory labels and instead trying to use mutual or collaborative designations.

As Hick et al. Over the years, research exploring the extent to which anti-oppressive practice is embedded in the education and training of social work students has been conducted Bronstein and Gibson, ; Coleman et al.

Similar findings were reported in the study by Chand et al. It is instructive to note that these studies were conducted in developed countries where the use of clinical or casework approach to practice is predominant. Besides, given the limited socioeconomic injustice such as poverty, oppressive traditional practices and exclusionary policies targeted at vulnerable groups in Western countries comparable to developing societies such as Africa, it is not unusual that students would opt to practice in areas in which their services are more needed, such as mental health settings, for which casework practice is most suitable.

Anti-oppressive social work addresses social divisions and structural inequalities in the work done with clients and workers. It aims to change the structure and procedures of service delivery through macrosystemic changes at the legal and political level Beresford and Croft, ; Clifford and Burke, ; George et al. Karabanow supports the notion that anti-oppressive social work should attempt to build safe and respectful environments for marginalized populations. Evidently, any systematic implementation of anti-oppressive practices in social work services would require extensive changes in the organizational structure and culture of social services.

Strier and Binyamin identify the theoretical rationale for an anti-oppressive transformation of social services to include developing non-hierarchical work relations between clients i. In addition, the rationale includes responding to social, class, gender and ethnic diversity, acknowledging unequal power relations with clients, creating a non-bureaucratic organizational culture, developing alliances with clients and critical consciousness among clients and workers and promoting reflexivity between workers and clients.

Amadasun posits that anti-oppressive social work seeks to dismantle neoliberal economic policies in the light of its deleterious impact on social conditions among large sections of the population. Neoliberal policies, as Kus notes, have eroded the image of public services and have provided the ideological rationale for systematically dismantling the welfare state. In many countries as is extant in many African states , neoliberal policies have consistently favored social policies that generate high levels of poverty, anti-welfare political climate, punitive welfare reforms, periodic budgetary cutbacks and the subsequent decay of the social service sector Harvey, ; Morgen et al.

Carey asserts that mainstream social work is being transformed by privatization and market-led policies in ways that lead social services to abandon service users. A qualitative evaluation research design was used in this study. Babbie and Mouton discuss the relevance of evaluation research in developing countries, such as Nigeria, that is interested in assessing whether, for instance, the quality of social work education in the country is consistent with international best standards in terms of producing competently trained social workers, who are well grounded in the knowledge and application of anti-oppressive social work approach.

Drawing on this research design, therefore, enabled the researchers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of social work education in Nigeria. The participants in this study are fourth-year undergraduate social work students from one of the major universities in southern Nigeria. Before the commencement of this study, flyers were posted in strategic locations within the social work department, in which the objectives of this study were boldly highlighted, and students were invited to participate.

Through this procedure, 15 students of a total of 47 final-year students indicated interest to participate in this study. However, on the scheduled date for the commencing of the investigation, 3 students withdrew their consent, thereby bringing the total study participants to 12 student social workers, comprising 9 female and 3 male students.

A semi-structured interview schedule based on one-on-one interviews was used as a means of data collection. Before the commencement of the exercise, a pilot study was organized among a group of third-year students to check for vagueness regarding the questions.

The students reported no ambiguity and, as such, no alteration was made. As Hofstee notes, interviews conducted in a relaxed atmosphere work well to build rapport and authenticity.

Data saturation Bowen, was observed after ten interviews, leading to the termination of the two outstanding interviews. The data were analyzed according to the steps intrinsic to interpretative phenomenological analysis. In this regard, transcripts of the interviews were written up and analyzed, and themes were identified and connections were made between transcripts to develop a set of master cross-transcript themes Houston and Mullan-Jensen, Reliability and authenticity are important in qualitative research, and strategies such as recording data objectively and comprehensively, a count of events and the use of audio tapes assist in ensuring rigor and validity Seale and Silverman, The six steps as suggested by Smith et al.

Descriptive validity is based on an attempt to accurately describe the data using transcripts of verbatim responses. In this regard, no information was left out or altered, and the use of an integrated independent coder also contributed to the descriptive validity.

Interpretive validity was ensured by the use of the transcript that included both the verbal and non-verbal data to justify interpretations. The use of a purposive sampling technique and a thorough description of the implementation of the research methodology ensured the transferability of the findings to other similar contexts.

To ensure theoretical validity, a literature control was done once the themes and subthemes were identified through data analysis. Evaluative validity was achieved by ensuring that the evaluation was based on the findings that emanated from the process of data analysis. Ethical issues addressed in this study include informed consent, voluntary participation and privacy and protection from harm. Accordingly, identifying details of the participants and the institution in which they represent are anonymized.

Furthermore, their responses are presented as a collective story to further obscure individual identification. The result is presented on the basis of the three themes Table 1 that emerged from the qualitative data: conceptualizing anti-oppressive practice, anti-oppressive practice in social work education and practicing from an anti-oppressive perspective; they are illustrated with verbatim responses of the student social workers to allow their voices to be heard.

Drawing ideas from the phrase, they construed anti-oppressive practice as a framework model for achieving the social justice and human rights mandate of the social work profession. One student explains:. Others defined the approach along the path of empowering social workers to challenge dominant ideologies that restrict and strangle the liberation of people.

According to one of the students:. Regarding the degree to which anti-oppressive practice was embedded in their professional training and education as exemplified by coursework and field placement, the participants acknowledged the content of anti-oppressive discourse in their class instructions but that the course content lacked depth.

Such a situation, they argued, stems from the lack of local content on a text about anti-oppressive practice in social work and the lack of operationalization or adaptation of concept to the African experience. Commenting in this regard, one student spoke of how:. Pertaining to their field placement experience, all but two of the participants were unanimous in their assertions that they did not receive significant fieldwork training in relation to practicing in organizations committed to challenging social injustice and oppression.

While acknowledging their anticipation of such practice opportunity, they, however, expressed discontent with the way and manner they were assigned to majorly statutory organizations whose goals are at variance with the underlying tenets of anti-oppressive practice.

As one student purports:. Is this not what social work is all about, seeking partnership based on respect for both parties? Given their impressive conceptual clarification, the participants were urged to reflect on how they intend to practice social work from an anti-oppressive perspective following the completion of their degree program. While the majority of the participants commented in this regard, two among them, who had conducted their field placement training in an advocacy organization, specifically shed more light in this discourse by identifying the three practice strategies which can be used while practicing social work from an anti-oppressive perspective.

First, they spoke of challenging oppressive and discriminatory policies through recourse to the advocacy and educator role of social work.

Discrimination, Inequality, and Poverty—A Human Rights Perspective

Anti-discrimination law or non-discrimination law refers to legislation designed to prevent discrimination against particular groups of people; these groups are often referred to as protected groups or protected classes. Anti-discrimination laws are rooted in principles of equality, specifically, that individuals should not be treated differently due to the characteristics outlined above. Anti-discrimination laws are designed to protect against both individual discrimination committed by individuals and from structural discrimination arising from policies or procedures that disadvantage certain groups. The Racial Discrimination Act was the first major anti-discrimination legislation passed in Australia, aimed at prohibiting discrimination based on race, ethnicity, or national origin. Additionally, the SDA has been expanded to include gender identity and intersex status as protected groups. The first Belgian anti-discrimination law of 25 February was annulled by the Belgian Constitutional Court. The Court ruled that the law was discriminative since its scope didn't include discrimination on the basis of a political opinion or language and thus violated the articles of the Belgian Constitution, instituting the principle of equality before law.


policy guidelines can support anti-discriminatory practice. PURPOSE OF THE UNIT. Effective health and social care practice recognises and adapts to society.


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As the next generation of social workers in a continent bedecked by oppressive customs, it is cardinal that the voices of social work students be heard. This study aims to share the reflections of Nigerian BSW students about anti-oppressive approach to professional practice. Drawing on a qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted among fourth-year social work students at one of the elite universities in the southern region of Nigeria.

Anti-discrimination law

Nigeria has an estimated 3. The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature and extent of discriminatory practices and attitudes in the health sector and indicate possible contributing factors and intervention strategies.

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