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Skim Milk Membranes in Human Milk

Study the effect of replacing the skim milk used in making ice cream with some dried fruit. Ice cream is a popular frozen dairy product over the world, and there are many types of ice cream that differ according to additives and manufactured way, the goal of this research was to prepare skim milk dried fruits powder banana, quince peach, apples for ice cream production.

The chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory attributes were evaluated for resultant ice cream. As the results indicated there was an increase in the total solids of resultant ice cream, especially when using banana powder because of its high carbohydrate content and low pH value of all treatments as compared to the control. As well as the specific weight and viscosity, increased in most treatments as compared to the control due to the increase in the rate of total solids.

The microbial content of the resultant ice cream was decreased or close to the value of the control for all treatments except for the treatments in which the skim milk was replaced by the dried banana powder, this may be due to the fact that added fruit powder is an additional factor for increasing the number of bacteria as compared with dried skim milk powder, as well as the addition of dried fruits powder result in a slight improvement in flavor.

There was an improvement in the appearance of the resultant ice cream in which banana powder was used. Ice cream may be defined as a frozen dairy product made by apt blending and processing of cream and other milk products together with sugar, flavor and color, with the incorporation of air, with or without stabilizer during the freezing process Sukumar, The dairy market is hugely competitive, with dairy industries always looking for new products to reach the consumer.

Projective techniques, such as the Completion task, are great allies in this process, as they identify consumer needs and expectations, which helps in developing brand new, more competitive products Torres et al. It has been found Karaman et al. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content.

Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content.

Ice cream is a pasteurized, homogenized, frozen food product characterized by a complex matrix that contains proteins, fat, air, minerals, additives, and sweeteners Ozdemir et al. Also, scanning electron microscopy showed an interaction between probiotic bacteria and inulin fibre on synbiotic ice cream and the adhesion of L. Practically, the possibility to improve the nutritional value of ice cream using ingredients with health benefits is valuable, focusing on natural antioxidants, natural pigments, vitamins, low fat and free from synthetic additives such as fruit and vegetables Sun-Waterhouse, Where Ice creams containing grape juice residue had a higher concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity compared to the control samples Vital et al.

The ice-cream matrix might be a good vehicle for probiotic cultures, due to its composition, which includes milk proteins, fat and lactose, as well as other compounds. Moreover, the fact that it is a frozen product and the high pH values 5. The incorporation of prebiotic compounds is also an alternative for functional ice creams Balthazar et al. Ice cream manufactured using a substantial amount of pumpkin pulp PP and carrot pulp CP has a high organoleptic acceptability.

In another study Tagatose, Litesse ultra and polydextrose as prebiotics were used in ice cream production and mixtures and these mixtures were inoculated with Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Bifidobacterium longum combined culture. Frozen raspberry fruits, commercial raspberry and blackberry fruit purees were used as taste flavor enhancers in synbiotic ice cream, It was determined that frozen fruit and fruit purees addition and using prebiotics significantly affected the Lactobacillus paracasei and Bifidobacterium spp.

They are given 50 to 80 calories or calories, depending on their sweetness. The concentration of these substances differs in its outer shell from that of its white core.

The abundance of fiber, especially pectin, which reduces the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and sugars, and regulates the natural passage within the intestines, and also rid the body of mineral toxins such as mercury or lead. While bananas are rich in antioxidants that protect against cancer and heart disease, the banana strengthens the lining of the stomach and intestines and protects them from hyperacidity, Quince is rich in pectin, gum, tannins and flavones It is considered an important antioxidant in addition to its use in the treatment of many cases, including laryngitis and its effectiveness in the treatment of respiratory infections, the Peaches is important in the treatment of constipation and dysuria in pregnant women, constipation and delayed menstruation and stimulate blood flow in the body Al-Rubaie, In a study was added addition of microcapsules of pistachio peel extract MPPE to produce a functional ice cream, The addition of MPPE to ice cream mixes improved the melting resistance, first dripping times and functional properties of ice cream such as antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

The results of the sensory analysis showed that the addition of MPPE had no significant effect on the overall acceptability of the product Ghandehari Yazdi et al. The banana content of carbohydrates, fats, protein and ash was PAE methodology can be used to characterize sensorially and to determine the consumers' acceptance of functional yogurts Costa et al.

And in studying on flavor enhancer probiotic prato cheese aimed to combine quantitative descriptive analysis QDA and temporal dominancef sensations TDS to assess the sensory profile of reduced-sodium probiotic prato cheese with the addition of flavor enhancers, Overall, QDA and TDS used together provided interesting insights for establishing the sensory profile of reduced-sodium probiotic prato cheese Silva et al.

The objective of this study were to show the effect of partial substitution of the sorting milk used in the manufacture of ice cream with dried fruits bananas, quince, peach and apple. The chemical composition of cow milk was estimated by device Milkoscan As for Powdered skim milk taken from the information on the can, Ash was estimated in the laboratory Table 1.

Formulas of the mixes are shown in Table 2. Total solid, fat, carbohydrate, fiber and Protein for both the fruit used and the resulting ice cream were estimated according to the method described in A. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Determine the specific weight of the product according to the method described in Ling using a density vial. Relative viscosity in the mixture is calculated as mentioned by Arbuckle Sensory assessment scores were given as suggested by Salim The total number of bacteria, yeasts, molds and coliform bacteria were estimated as reported in American Public Health Association Significant variations were determined by Duncan's multiple range test Duncan The data in Table 3 showed the chemical composition of the fruits used in manufacturing the blends of ice cream, total solids rate was the highest in banana fruit, reaching While the lowest rate was in peach fruit, reaching The fat rate was equal for all fruits, except in banana fruit the fats, protein and ash rates were high as compared to other fruits, As for fiber, quince contained the highest rate compared to other fruits, reached 2.

The results in Table 4 show the chemical composition of ice cream components, the total solids rate was By using oatmeal, corn and barley flour instead of dried skim milk powder. The rate of carbohydrates achieved the highest value In the treatments that used dried banana powder instead of skim milk powder, because of the high content of carbohydrates in bananas, while the carbohydrates rate decreased in the treatments in which dried peaches and apples were used instead of skim milk, due to the low rate of carbohydrates content in previously mentioned fruits.

The ash rate was high, 0. The data in Table 4 also show pH values of resultant ice cream which was 6. In Table 5 are presented the data of the physical characteristics, relative viscosity and yield rate of the resultant ice cream samples from replace the skim milk powder with fruits powder, the specific weight of the control sample was 0. However, this value decreased in all other treatments, as well as the samples with a high viscosity value record low value of yield rate, which mean there is an inverse relationship between replacement rate and yield rate, this is due to the prevention of air entering the ice cream mixture during the whipping process due to the increase in the relative viscosity, as in the samples made by adding dried banana powder instead of dried skim milk powder alone which was The count of E.

The data in Table 7 shown the points of ice cream samples which made by replacing skim milk with different types of dried fruits powder, the results indicated that these samples record high points for flavor which was 45 points in control sample and 46 in samples which made by replacing skim milk with dried banana and apple powder, also the flavor points rised with replacement rate increasing due to add the fruit flavor.

The ice cream obtained from replacing the fruit extracts with the dried sorting milk led to an increase in the percentage of the total solids, an increase in viscosity, and an improvement in the sensory properties of the ice cream. Thanks to all the staff of the Dairy Lab.

Practical Application: Making ice cream using fruit extracts as a substitute for milk powder. Acu, M. Food Science and Technology. In press. Akesowan, A. Influence of soy protein Isolate on physical and sensory properties of Ice cream. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science , 42 1 , Al-Rubaie, D.

Beirut: House of revival of Arab Heritage. Standard methods for the examination of dairy products 14th ed. Washington: APHA. Arbuckle, W. Ice cream 4th ed.

Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington: AOAC. Awad, R. Performance of rice flour in ice cream manufactre. Cairo: Egyptian Society of Dairy Science. Balthazar, C. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream. Journal of Dairy Science , 98 7 , The addition of inulin and Lactobacillus casei 01 in sheep milk ice cream.

Food Chemistry , , PMID: Clarke, C. The science of ice cream. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. Costa, G. Preferred attribute elicitation methodology compared to conventional descriptive analysis: a study using probiotic yogurt sweetened with xylitol and added with prebiotic components.

Journal of Sensory Studies , e Cruz, A. Ice-cream as a probiotic food carrier. Food Research International , 42 9 , Duncan, D.

Multiple range and multiple F test biometric. Journal Storage , 11 1 , El-Samahy, S. Producing ice cream with concentrated cactus pear pulp. Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development , 11, Ferraz, J. Sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream produced with different overrun levels.

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By smarg19 , March 11, in Share your Workflows. To download, visit the Packal page. Skim is a fantastic app with great Applescript support. This workflow provides quick, easy access to a few custom Applescripts that I've written to deal with certain pesky problems I come across when dealing with PDFs. There are currently only 3 actions:. Note the small, vertical line at the bottom of the page.

Distribution of Kappa-Casein in Skim Milk

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Duplicate citations

The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. Merged citations.

Phenolic compounds had less predictable distribution patterns based on their lipophilicities. Within the whey fraction, chemicals with greater lipophilicity are associated with whey proteins more than hydrophilic chemicals. The resultant model could help predict the potential distribution of chemical contaminants among milk products in cow milk, if present. Previously, we tested the hypothesis that drug distribution among milk fractions could be predicted based on lipophilicity log D , distribution coefficients or log P , partition coefficients. A linear model of the same drugs was also described for the distribution between curd and whey, as well as whey protein associations. In this report, we consider 12 environmental contaminants to better understand the possible impacts of a broader range of log D and log P values on xenobiotic distribution in milk. In the absence of overt physiologic effects such as toxicity or effects on blood flow to the mammary gland, such results suggest that whole milk composition i.

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