Effect of bacterial zapa zapa and ftsz proteins pdf
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The prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, forms a ring-like structure FtsZ-ring at midcell. The FtsZ-ring establishes the division plane and enables the assembly of the macromolecular division machinery divisome. Although many molecular components of the divisome have been identified and their interactions extensively characterized, the spatial organization of these proteins within the divisome is unclear. Consequently, the physical mechanisms that drive divisome assembly, maintenance, and constriction remain elusive. Here we applied single-molecule based superresolution imaging, combined with genetic and biophysical investigations, to reveal the spatial organization of cellular structures formed by four important divisome proteins in E.
Cell division in bacteria is mediated by the tubulin-like protein FtsZ, which assembles into a structure known as the Z ring at the future site of cytokinesis. We report the discovery of a Z-ring-associated protein in Bacillus subtilis called ZapA. ZapA was found to colocalize with the Z ring in vivo and was capable of binding to FtsZ and stimulating the formation of higher-order assemblies of the cytokinetic protein in vitro. The absence of ZapA alone did not impair cell viability, but the absence of ZapA in combination with the absence of a second, dispensable division protein EzrA caused a severe block in cytokinesis. Conversely, overproduction of ZapA reversed the toxicity of excess levels of the division inhibitor MinD. In toto, the evidence indicates that ZapA is part of the cytokinetic machinery of the cell and acts by promoting Z-ring formation.
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To successfully propagate, cells need to coordinate chromosomal replication and segregation with cell division to prevent formation of DNA-less cells and cells with damaged DNA. Here, we review molecular systems in Escherichia coli that are known to be involved in positioning the divisome and chromosome relative to each other. Interestingly, this well-studied micro-organism has several partially redundant mechanisms to achieve this task; none of which are essential. Some of these systems determine the localization of the divisome relative to chromosomes such as SlmA-dependent nucleoid occlusion, some localize the chromosome relative to the divisome such as DNA translocation by FtsK, and some are likely to act on both systems such as the Min system and newly described Ter linkage. Moreover, there is evidence that E.
Prokaryotic Cytoskeletons pp Cite as. Bacillus subtilis is the best described member of the Gram positive bacteria. It is a typical rod shaped bacterium and grows by elongation in its long axis, before dividing at mid cell to generate two similar daughter cells. Cell growth occurs strictly by elongation of the rod, which maintains a constant diameter at all growth rates.
The prokaryotic tubulin homolog FtsZ polymerizes into protofilaments, which further assemble into higher-order structures at future division sites to form the Z-ring, a dynamic structure essential for bacterial cell division. The precise nature of interactions between FtsZ protofilaments that organize the Z-ring and their physiological significance remain enigmatic. In this study, we solved two crystallographic structures of a pair of FtsZ protofilaments, and demonstrated that they assemble in an antiparallel manner through the formation of two different inter-protofilament lateral interfaces.
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Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ at midcell in a ring-like structure called the Z-ring. Five different cross-links confirmed the tetrameric structure of ZapA.
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