Descriptive and prescriptive linguistics ppt to pdf
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Linguistics and Language
The main difference between descriptive and prescriptive grammar is that the descriptive grammar describes how the language is used whereas the prescriptive grammar explains how the language should be used by the speakers. Linguistics is the scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of grammar , syntax , and phonetics. With regard to studying the grammar, there are mainly two approaches that one can use; they are descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar. Descriptive grammar focuses on describing the manner how either native or non-native speakers use the language on a daily basis. Therefore, it includes a set of rules about language based on how it is actually used, not how it should be used. Since this approach basically focuses on identifying and explaining the varied use of the language according to the user, this grammar discipline does not explain what is correct and what is incorrect. Descriptive grammarians examine the principles and patterns that underlie the use of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences of the particular speakers or the users of the language.
In linguistics , generative grammar is grammar the set of language rules that indicates the structure and interpretation of sentences that native speakers of a language accept as belonging to their language. Adopting the term generative from mathematics, linguist Noam Chomsky introduced the concept of generative grammar in the s. This theory is also known as transformational grammar, a term still used today. Grammar refers to the set of rules that structure a language, including syntax the arrangement of words to form phrases and sentences and morphology the study of words and how they are formed. Generative grammar is a theory of grammar that holds that human language is shaped by a set of basic principles that are part of the human brain and even present in the brains of small children.
Descriptive vs. Prescriptive
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Notice that there is a place for both description and prescription in language study. For example, when adults learn a foreign language, they typically want someone to tell them how to speak, in other words to prescribe a particular set of rules to follow, and expect a teacher or book to set forth those rules. But how do teachers know what rules to prescribe? At some point in time, someone had to describe the language and infer those rules. Prescription, in other words, can only occur after the language has been described, and good prescription depends on adequate description. We obviously don't want to be teaching people the wrong things about language.
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Descriptive and Prescriptive for HS Level Ppt
Traditional grammar is a framework for the description of the structure of a language. Traditional grammars may be contrasted with more modern theories of grammar in theoretical linguistics , which grew out of traditional descriptions. Traditional Western grammars generally classify words into parts of speech.
Until the later part of the 20th century, most students and teachers would have expected a grammar book to contain rules for good style.