Prevalence of suicide ideation among adolescents and young adults in rural bangladesh pdf
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Suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years: prevalence and associated factors. Adolescents completed a self-report that contained the Children's Depression Inventory.
Recently, suicide among Bangladeshi university students has become a serious problem. However, to date, there have been no studies assessing suicidal behaviors among Bangladeshi students. Therefore, the present study investigated suicidal ideation SI and its risk factors among this population. A classroom-based convenience sampling method was utilized to survey students of a university in Bangladesh
The Burden of Suicide in Rural Bangladesh: Magnitude and Risk Factors
Current findings in the prevention and reduction of anxiety, depression and suicide in children and adolescents View all 10 Articles. Among 15—24 year olds in Ireland, completed suicide was responsible for 4. Few international research studies have investigated the relationship between masculinity [as assessed by a measure of gender role conflict GRC ] and suicide ideation, and none have done so with Irish adolescents.
Regression analyses and tests of mediation revealed that depression significantly mediated the relationship between GRC and negative suicide ideation, whilst self-esteem and depression significantly mediated the relationship between GRC and positive suicide ideation.
Implications and limitations of the current study are outlined and directions for future research are discussed. Cerel et al. Adolescent suicide has emerged as a critical public health concern e. The high incidence of adolescent suicide is believed to be precipitated by the myriad societal stressors experienced by young people Turner et al.
Other factors that have been associated with adolescent suicide include gender identity e. In Ireland, specifically, data from the Central Statistics Office [CSO] and World Health Organization [WHO] b reveal that, from to , suicide rates have consistently been over three times higher for males compared to females.
This difference persists across all age groups. Focusing more narrowly on 15—24 year olds in Ireland, suicide was responsible for 3. Suicide also has persisted as the leading cause of death for males in this age range Lynch et al. To put this into perspective, suicide was responsible for more deaths in among 15—24 year old Irish males than cancer, traffic accidents, and heart, liver, and kidney disease combined World Health Organization [WHO], c.
There is a dearth of research exploring adolescent suicidality within an Irish context; however, reviewing the available literature reveals that gender differences exist among suicide risk factors for Irish adolescents.
This research indicates that Irish males use more lethal methods of suicide i. Using data from the same survey in counties Kerry and Cork, McMahon et al. Factors such as drug use, smoking, drinking, and knowing a family member or a friend who had engaged in DSH were found to have associations with DSH for both males and females.
For females, interpersonal relationship factors i. Conversely, school-related problems i. Further, concerns regarding sexual orientation and being bullied at school were more strongly associated with DSH for males. Given these risk factors for young Irish males, it is surprising that the relationship between suicidality and masculinity [in particular, gender role conflict GRC ] has received little empirical attention. With over studies conducted to date, GRC has been shown to be associated with numerous psychological health indicators.
Further diversity in the variations of experienced GRC is dependent on developmental stages, cultural and cohort specific definitions of masculinity and gender role stereotypes Kahn, Previous research attests to the psychometric soundness of the GRCS e.
Blazina et al. From the original scale items , 29 items were retained across four equivalent factors although three were renamed to better capture the latent construct captured by the items [i. Despite supporting the general tenets of GRC theory, qualitative investigations of the items on the GRCS-A, conducted with another sample of Irish adolescents, revealed that numerous items were problematic.
These items were subsequently validated by content and lay experts and exploratory factor analysis identified a unidimensional structure. As detailed above, the GRC research paradigm has repeatedly shown correlations between scores on the GRCS and a number of indicators of poor physical and psychological wellbeing e. Galligan et al. The authors link the absence of this form of resilience with literature suggesting such deficits are indicative of a greater propensity for depression and subsequent suicide.
Further, those obtaining higher scores on a measure of restrictive emotionality were 11 times more likely to report elevated depression scores; three times more likely to report suicide ideation after controlling for depressive symptoms ; and more than twice as likely to report attempting suicide again, after controlling for depressive symptoms. Thus, it is unknown how these other facets of GRC link with both depression and indicators of suicidality.
Using a measure of GRC that is appropriate for adolescents outside of a North American context is important. It is equally important, however, that researchers be cognizant of the different ways in which suicide ideation can be assessed. Osman et al. One risk factor that has received considerable attention is depression which has been identified as one of the primary predictors of suicide ideation Harlow et al.
In addition, low self-esteem accounts for variance in suicide ideation beyond that accounted for by depression Overholser et al. A limitation common of many indicators of suicide ideation is their tendency to focus on negative risk factors; a focus that precludes these measures from capturing the multifaceted nature of suicide ideation Osman et al.
For example, harms-based measures overlook the fact that suicide ideation also may involve protective factors i. Therefore, scales that capture both protective and risk factors simultaneously would appear to offer the most comprehensive assessment of suicide ideation.
To fulfill this objective, Osman et al. Participants are asked to provide the frequency with which they experienced each item over the course of the past 2 weeks. Since each subscale measures opposing constructs of suicide ideation, separate scores are computed rather than a total score.
Initially validated using an adult population, the PANSI was subsequently found to be psychometrically sound with both inpatient Osman et al. Employing the PANSI provides researchers with more robust data regarding the multifaceted construct of suicide ideation. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to address this omission by investigating the relationship between the GRC and suicide ideation among a non-clinical sample of Irish adolescent males.
Thus, in the current study, it was predicted that similar associations would be observed i. Social scientists have not investigated whether the association between GRC and indices of suicide ideation are mediated by depression and self-esteem; thus, no formal hypotheses in terms of mediation were generated.
Approximately The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale CES-D; Radlof, consists of 20 items and has been used extensively in non-clinical samples of adults, adolescents, and children for the screening of depression. Responses are provided using a four point Likert scale ranging from one Rarely or none of the time to four Most or all of the time to indicate how often each item was experienced in the previous week. Scores can range from 20 to 80, with scores of 36 or higher indicating the possible presence of depression.
Family affluence is calculated using a three point ordinal scale, where scores 4—6 indicate low affluence; 7—9 denote middle affluence, and 10—13 suggest high affluence. Since Boyce et al. Past suicide research suggests that populations with low and middle socioeconomic status SES are at greater risk for suicide than more affluent status groups Ko et al.
A five-point Likert scale, ranging from one Never to five Almost Always , is used to indicate the frequency with which a respondent experiences each of the items. Scores can range from 9 to 45, with higher scores indicating greater GRC. Responses are provided using a four-point Likert scale ranging from one Not at all to four Very much so. Total scores range from 10 to 40, with higher scores indicating greater self-esteem.
Forty-three schools were contacted at random from a list of schools provided by the Department of Education. Of the 43 schools that were contacted, two schools agreed to take part in the research. Two hundred and fifty consent forms were administered to School A and consent forms to School B. Following approval from the Board of Management of the schools, the guidance counselors in each school co-ordinated and oversaw the distribution and completion of the surveys.
Posters for support agencies i. In line with REC guidelines, active parental consent was solicited. Participants whose parents wanted their child to take part in the research were asked to bring the signed consent form to the guidance counselor within a 2 week window.
During this period, guidance counselors also reminded potential participants to bring the consent forms home to be signed. While speculative, it is possible that the difference in return rates may be attributable to a highly supportive and proactive guidance counselor affiliated with School A.
Due to tragic circumstances i. Consequently, 48 additional schools were contacted to partake in the research. Five schools agreed to take part in the study bringing the total number of schools to six. The response rates were: School B 30 out of 42 students returning the consent forms participated ; School C 40 out of 47; 94 forms distributed initially ; School D 36 out of 53; forms distributed] ; School E 18 out of 42; forms distributed ; School F 11 out of 22; 80 forms distributed ; and, finally, School G 41 out of 47; consent forms distributed.
Two weeks after the consent forms had been distributed, the questionnaire was administered to students. The questionnaire, which was presented to participants in an A4 sealable envelope, consisted of demographic items and the measures of GRC, self-esteem, depression and suicidal ideation.
The information sheet and consent form were included as was a business card listing contact details of relevant support agencies. The questionnaire took approximately 10—15 min to complete. The data were initially screened for missing values. After the missing values were replaced using EM, descriptive statistics were computed.
Total CES-D scores ranged from 20 to However, Likewise, although GRC scores ranged from 9 to 45, the mean score was To illustrate, In addition to descriptive statistics, intercorrelations among scale scores were examined see Table 2. With the exception of family affluence, all measures were found to significantly correlate with one another at a moderate-to-strong level.
The data were then transformed, but as doing so did not yield significant improvements in normality, the untransformed data were employed. To mitigate the effects of the data violations, we used bootstrapping Preacher and Hayes, , which has been found to be more robust to violations of distributional assumptions Yuan and MacKinnon, The relationship between GRC and negative suicide ideation was fully mediated by depression scores.
The indirect effect was tested using a bootstrap estimation approach with samples. Figure 1. The second mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between GRC and positive suicide ideation was fully mediated by both depression and self-esteem see Figure 2. Again, the indirect effect was tested using a bootstrap estimation approach with samples. Figure 2. In the first study to examine the direct and indirect relationships between GRC and negative suicide and protective suicide ideation among a large sample from a non-clinical population of Irish adolescent boys, the results indicated that, while GRC correlates significantly with both factors protecting against and contributing to suicide ideation, these associations become statistically non-significant when depression and self-esteem are taken into consideration.
Consistent with previous research, the mediation models revealed that depression correlated in the anticipated directions with both indices of suicide ideation whereas self-esteem correlated significantly with positive suicide ideation only. Boys who reported greater degrees of GRC were more likely to experience depression which, in turn, increased their likelihood of reporting negative suicide ideation.
Our findings support Houle et al. Specifically, we found that scores on the I-GRCS-A correlated moderately with depression, a variable which — in turn — was linked with negative suicide ideation i.
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Current findings in the prevention and reduction of anxiety, depression and suicide in children and adolescents View all 10 Articles. Among 15—24 year olds in Ireland, completed suicide was responsible for 4. Few international research studies have investigated the relationship between masculinity [as assessed by a measure of gender role conflict GRC ] and suicide ideation, and none have done so with Irish adolescents. Regression analyses and tests of mediation revealed that depression significantly mediated the relationship between GRC and negative suicide ideation, whilst self-esteem and depression significantly mediated the relationship between GRC and positive suicide ideation. Implications and limitations of the current study are outlined and directions for future research are discussed.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. Lifetime diagnoses of anxiety disorders social phobia, simple phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder were assessed at baseline. Further analyses demonstrated that the presence of any anxiety disorder in combination with a mood disorder was associated with a higher likelihood of suicide attempts in comparison with a mood disorder alone. Moreover, the data clearly demonstrate that comorbid anxiety disorders amplify the risk of suicide attempts in persons with mood disorders. Clinicians and policymakers need to be aware of these findings, and further research is required to delineate whether treatment of anxiety disorders reduces the risk of subsequent suicidal behavior. A well-established risk factor for suicidal behavior is the presence of mental disorders, especially mood disorders, 1 , 5 , 6 substance use disorders, 7 and schizophrenia.
young adults every year committed suicide in rural Bangladesh . Among adolescents assuming the prevalence of suicidal ideation among adolescents at and. int/entity/child_adolescent/tcl-toulon.org Accessed on.
Lockdown, social isolation, and interruption of daily life during the COVID period have impacted many lives. University students are particularly vulnerable to such disruptions and may be particularly disposed to suicidal ideation, potentially creating a new public health crisis. This study aimed to assess suicidal ideation and associated factors among university students in Bangladesh during the early stages of the COVID pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted using the Google form Google survey tool from April to May Initially, respondents voluntarily completed the survey form.
The aim of the paper is to quantify the burden and risk factors of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviors in rural Bangladesh. A census was carried out in seven sub-districts encompassing 1. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at the household level. Descriptive analyses were done to quantify the burden and Poisson regression was run to determine on risk factors.
Metrics details. A growing body of epidemiological literature suggests that problematic Internet use PIU is associated with a range of psychological health problems in adolescents and young adults. This study aimed to explore socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of PIU and examine its association with psychological distress.
Original Research ARTICLE
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