Business data communications infrastructure networking and security pdf
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Business Data Communications- Infrastructure, Networking and Security, 7th Edition
Increasing business emphasis on web services, remote access, online transactions, and social networking means that this trend is likely to continue. As businesses rely more and more on information technology, the range of services that business users desire to consume is expanding. For example, mobile broadband traffic growth is exploding as is the amount of data being pushed over mobile networks by business users' smart phones and tablets.
In addition, over time, mobile users are increasingly demanding high quality services to support their high resolution camera phones, favorite video streams and high-end audio. Four technology trends are particularly notable: 1 The trend toward faster and cheaper, both in computing and communications, continues.
The benefits include: 1 cost savings, through reduction in network management costs and through better use of existing resources; 2 effectiveness, allowing companies to employ a more mobile workforce; 3 transformation: converged IP networks can easily adapt to new functions and features as they become available through technological advancements without having to install new infrastructure.
Whereas convergence focuses on the merger of fundamental voice, video, and data communications facilities and the resulting ability to support multimedia applications, UC focuses on the user perspective to the broad spectrum of business applications. Three major categories of benefits are typically realized by organizations that use UC: 1 personal productivity gains, through effective use of presence information; 2 workgroup performance gains, through real-time collaboration; 3 enterprise-level process improvements: IP convergence enables UC to be integrated with enterprise-wide and departmental-level applications, business processes, and workflows.
For WANs, this is less often the case, with all or at least a significant fraction of the WAN circuits and switching nodes are not owned by the business. The grading rubric for the paper should ensure presence of acceptably complete descriptions of the business benefits derived by three or more organizations that have implemented UC. The rubric may include the presence of examples of benefits realized at personal, workgroup, and enterprise-wide levels.
The grading rubric for the paper should ensure presence of acceptably complete descriptions of the business benefits derived by three or more organizations that have implemented IPTV and the business rationale underlying its implementation. Text files, files saved with a.
Because it allows for variable-length encoding, which allows multiple bytes to be used to represent characters in an alphabet or character set, UTF-8 is capable of representing symbols and characters used in all the major languages spoken around the world.
UTF-8 allows characters and symbols to be represented by one, two, three, or four bytes and is therefore capable of representing more than a million different characters or symbols. Unicode is another character-encoding scheme that is supported in numerous programming languages, including Java, Microsoft's. It is also supported by the operating systems used on most computing and communication devices.
These are also used for to compress business data for storage because exact duplicates of original business documents and data are needed to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. Simple objects, such as rectangles and ovals, and more complex objects are defined by the grouping of line segments. In raster graphics, an image is represented as a twodimensional array of spots, called pixels, which may take on the values black or white, or may be gray scale.
Both 8bit grayscale and bit color are supported and the JPEG standard is designed to be general purpose, meeting a variety of needs in such areas as desktop publishing, graphic arts, newspaper wire photo transmission, and medical imaging. JPEG is appropriate for highquality images, including photographs and is widely used to encode photo images. Another format that is often seen on the Web is the Graphics Interchange Format GIF , an 8-bit color format that can display up to colors; it is useful for non-photographic images with a fairly narrow range of color, such as company logos.
It supports bit or bit color and 8-or bit grayscale. Relative to other image formats,. TIF files are very large; this essentially rules them out for use on Web pages because they can slow the download process.
It uses lossless ZIP compression and like TIFF, it can be used to store or archive highquality images of photographs, logos, graphics, documents, and master copies of data. Postscript is a page-description language that is built into many desktop printers and virtually all high-end printing systems. By separating the scans, the screen is refreshed twice as often 60 times per second vs.
The gun emits an electron beam that scans across the surface of the screen from left to right and top to bottom. For black-and-white television, the amount of illumination produced on a scale from black to white at any point is proportional to the intensity of the beam as it passes that point.
Thus at any instant in time the beam takes on an analog value of intensity to produce the desired brightness at that point on the screen. Further, as the beam scans, the analog value changes. Thus the video image can be thought of as a time-varying analog signal.
Liquid crystal display LCD televisions and computer monitors, are better known as flat panel or flat screen monitors, are inherently digital devices.
These screens use thin sandwiches of glass containing a liquid-crystal material to display images. Electric current causes the molecules of the liquid-crystal material to change their alignment to either block or transmit light and create images. Each pixel in LCD displays is composed of red, green, and blue subpixels.
Because LCDs are digital devices, they fit well with digital video sources and transmission by helping to ensure that captured and transmitted images are received with no signal loss or corruption.
If an analog video camera signal is digitized and then transmitted or stored in a digital format, it may be considered digital video. However, the term is more typically applied to video content that is initially captured with a digital video device.
Digital video cameras capture moving images digitally. In essence, this is done by taking a series of digital photographs, at a rate of at least 30 frames per second. Digital video cameras use either interlacing or progressive scan, in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. Progressive scan is used for computer monitors and most HDTV high-definition television schemes.
It samples an image at regular intervals, analyzes the image's frequency components, and discards the frequencies that do not affect how the human eye would perceive the image. It is one of the most important VTC standards and is widely supported in unified communications systems. In general, in order to increase productivity, system response times should be kept to 2 seconds or less.
For the World Wide Web, site response time should be 3 seconds or less to ensure user interest levels are kept high. However, it now appears that productivity increases as rapid response times are achieved. Normally, the response time for a business application should be as fast as possible. However, it is also important to ensure that the system does not react so fast that the user cannot keep up.
For example, if the response to a user action is not displayed long enough for the user to read or react to, potential productivity gains from rapid response times cannot be realized. Today, if the application reacts in a tenth of a second 0. Users notice a delay of 1. Hence, response times between 0. Quality of Experience QoE is a subjective measure of the user's perception of the overall value of the network application or service.
QoE can be affected by the extent to which QoS is used to improve the performance and user engagement with the application or service. There are many network elements that can degrade the quality of the service as it is experienced by the end user including encoding processes, WAN infrastructure components, the business LAN or home network, and the user's computing device. Network elements that facilitate flexibility, security, cost, mobility, and personalization may contribute positively to QoE for users of a particular network application or service.
In business networks, throughput is the average rate of message delivery over a communication channel or the network as a whole. It can be thought of as the total bandwidth capacity of a communications channel or network and can be measured in various ways including bits per second, bytes per second, or packets per second.
Throughput can be affected by numerous factors including communication media, media access control protocols, switch and router capabilities, security mechanisms, network congestion, the configuration of end devices, and appropriate use of QoS mechanisms. Investment in network infrastructure and business software upgrades is often driven by the need for greater throughput, improved QoS, and perceived QoS or QoE. Increased throughput can contribute to improved response times and enhanced worker productivity.
The grading rubric for the paper should ensure presence of acceptably accurate and complete definitions for each type of cloud services. The rubric should also include two or more examples of major providers for each cloud services category e.
The grading rubric should ensure presence of acceptably accurate and complete URLs for at least three YouTube videos that focus on Unified Communications. It should also include sufficiently complete and compelling justification for the video selected as being best. Answers will vary. The grading rubric should include presence of descriptions of IVR benefits realized by three or more businesses and the reasons why IVR was implemented.
It should also include a general description of IVR use by businesses. The grading rubric should include identification of multiple IP-PBX capabilities and the business benefits of these capabilities.
We allow one extra character per word for spaces and punctuation. Thus, the total number of characters is about 6. Transmission time at 1. In order to store the image as raw data, 8,, bytes are needed. The compression ratio achieved by using CLUT encoding is almost The rubric should include descriptions of how three or more specific business examples of TVoIP usage.
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Texas Tech University. Lots of useful material, including PPT slides, lecture notes, project suggestions, and example project reports. Oakland University, Michigan. Contains lecture notes and other resources. Washington State University in Vancouver. The item Business data communications, William Stallings represents a specific, individual, material embodiment of a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in Brigham Young University.
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Last updated: Saturday, February 26, Telecommunications : Articles and new product information from past issues, plus an extensive international listing of industry trade shows. Product listings include a brief description plus the ability to request product information from the vendor.
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