List of kings and queens of england pdf
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- 41 Facts About the 41 Kings and Queens Since 1066
- English Kings and Queens - Historical Timeline
- List of English monarchs
- Kings and Queens of England and Britain 827 – Present Day
Britroyals Home. Alfred the Great
41 Facts About the 41 Kings and Queens Since 1066
Queen Elizabeth II is the great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-granddaughter of William the Conqueror, and she has been related in one way or another to every other king or queen of England and later of Great Britain, and later still the United Kingdom since.
When Henry I died in , his entrails were removed and buried in Rouen in northwest France. The rest of his body was buried in England. On November 25, , a vessel called the White Ship was chartered to carry the present king Henry I and much of his family and court Stephen among them across the English Channel from France to England.
Henry, however, had made other arrangements for himself, leaving the rest of his court to travel on the White Ship as planned. Off the coast of Normandy, the overcrowded ship sank. Henry I decided to name his daughter Matilda as the successor, but when Henry died she was an unpopular choice, allowing Stephen to claim the throne in a period of civil crisis known as The Anarchy.
He had reportedly left the White Ship before it departed due to a sudden bout of diarrhea. Henry II rode his horse so frequently that he was bow-legged. Richard I was shot through the shoulder with a crossbow outside of Chalus Castle in France in March The injury was serious, but survivable—but the infection that followed it was not, and he died two weeks later on April 6.
As for the shot that brought down the king? It was a lucky shot over the side of the castle from a young boy.
He kept it in the Tower of London, and had it taken down to the River Thames each morning to swim and catch fish. The sight of the enormous catapult being constructed outside the castle walls was enough to compel those inside to offer an unconditional surrender—but Edward had none of it, and did not accept the surrender until after he had tried the Warwolf out.
In , Edward II enacted a statute forbidding the wearing of armor in Parliament. It remains in force to this day. Edward III once attended a Christmas fancy dress banquet dressed as a pheasant.
To celebrate the coronation of king Richard II on July 16, , fountains of wine were opened across London. He ruled for 9.
Shortly after, a movement emerged to have Henry canonized as a saint. Edward IV and his House of York took the throne from the opposing House of Lancaster in March , following his victory at the extraordinarily violent Battle of Towton. Fought during a blinding snowstorm on Palm Sunday, Towton is believed to be the biggest and bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil: Somewhere between 50, and 60, troops were involved, of whom a contemporary account estimated 28, were killed.
Put another way, the Battle of Towton wiped out 1 percent of the entire population of England at the time. Given such a bloody start to his reign, Edward IV has been credited as being, perhaps unsurprisingly, the first king in English history to appoint a bodyguard. Edward V is both shortest-lived English monarch post-conquest and the shortest-reigning English king albeit uncrowned.
Although his fate as one of the ill-fated Princes in the Tower is unclear, it has long been controversially assumed that he was murdered after just 78 days on throne on the orders of his successor, Richard III.
He was just 12 years old at the time. Henry VII was the first English monarch to have a fully realized portrait stamped onto his coins. Before then, royal monetary portraiture was largely stylized and comprised little more than a crowned head, but a groat equal to four pence minted in London sometime around was embossed with a surprisingly realistic profile portrait of the king.
Henry lost [ PDF ]. Despite his youth he was 9 when he as crowned and 15 when he died , Edward VI is credited with being the first English monarch to charter an exploration of the Arctic. The king was a keen geographer and had learned to read a compass from the Venetian explorer Sebastian Cabot. But one of the other captains, Richard Chancellor, found himself in Russia, where the letter was delivered to Ivan the Terrible and opened trade between England and Russia. She had been named Edward's successor in a bid to keep Protestant control of England.
Despite her youth, she was exceptionally well read and spoke Latin, Hebrew, and Italian. Her "reign" which historians still debate lasted just nine days; she was deposed by Mary I—a. Bloody Mary—on July 19, , and was eventually executed in February Mary had two female court jesters , one of whom was named Lucretia the Tumbler.
Elizabeth I had effigies of foreign dignitaries and other guests to her court made out of gingerbread. James I kept an elephant in St. It was given a gallon of wine to drink every morning during the winter. Charles I remains the only English monarch ever to be executed. After he was beheaded on January 30, , his head was sewn back onto his body before he was buried. Charles II wore an enormous pair of high-heeled shoes to his coronation. They can be seen in his official coronation portrait.
These two are the only official joint monarchs to have ruled Britain although some consider Mary I and Phillip II to have also been joint monarchs. William outlived Mary by eight years: she died of smallpox in , while he died of an infection after breaking his collarbone falling from his horse in This monarch's body was so swollen when she died she had to be buried in a square coffin.
Because they contain saltpeter potassium nitrate which can be used to make gunpowder, George I allegedly declared all pigeon droppings to be the property of the crown.
The last British monarch to lead his own troops into battle was George II at the battle of Dettingen in He did, however, have blue urine —which has been ascribed to either porphyria or, more recently, to the medication his doctors were giving him.
While he was there, George Washington plotted to have him kidnapped. Queen Victoria was given a musical bustle that played the national anthem whenever she sat down. He weighed them once when they arrived, and once when they left to ensure that they had eaten well during their stay.
Dawson even called his wife in London to tell her to let the editor of The Times know to hold back publication. In , a letter written by a steward named Jim Richardson from on board the Nahlin , the steam yacht chartered by Edward VIII, was put up for auction. Simpson, had spent much of his time doing jigsaws. Elizabeth II is the first British monarch to have a televised coronation and a televised Christmas address.
She sent her first email from an army base in , and sent the first royal tweet in Wikimedia Commons. Subscribe to our Newsletter!
English Kings and Queens - Historical Timeline
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Built first navy; united SW England. Edward the Elder Bad king: paid Dane-geld to Vikings. Edmund Ironside. Scandalous queen. Plantagenet.
List of English monarchs
The following is a simplified family tree of the English and British monarchs. For kings before Alfred, see House of Wessex family tree. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great , who initially ruled Wessex , one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the Anglo-Saxons from about , and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the English , his rule represents the start of the first unbroken line of kings to rule the whole of England, the House of Wessex. Arguments are made for a few different kings thought to control enough Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to be deemed the first king of England. For example, Offa of Mercia and Egbert of Wessex are sometimes described as kings of England by popular writers, but it is no longer the majority view of historians that their wide dominions are part of a process leading to a unified England.
В целях безопасности каждый файл, загруженный в ТРАНСТЕКСТ, должен был пройти через устройство, именуемое Сквозь строй, - серию мощных межсетевых шлюзов, пакетных фильтров и антивирусных программ, которые проверяли вводимые файлы на предмет компьютерных вирусов и потенциально опасных подпрограмм. Файлы, содержащие программы, незнакомые устройству, немедленно отвергались. Их затем проверяли вручную. Иногда отвергались абсолютно безвредные файлы - на том основании, что они содержали программы, с которыми фильтры прежде не сталкивались.
Kings and Queens of England and Britain 827 – Present Day
Мидж, скорее всего это наши данные неточны, - решительно заявил Бринкерхофф. - Ты только подумай: ТРАНСТЕКСТ бьется над одним-единственным файлом целых восемнадцать часов. Слыханное ли это. Отправляйся домой, уже поздно. Она окинула его высокомерным взглядом и швырнула отчет на стол. - Я верю этим данным. Чутье подсказывает мне, что здесь все верно.
Сьюзан хотелось потянуть шефа назад, в безопасность его кабинета. В кромешной тьме вокруг ей виделись чьи-то лица. На полпути к ТРАНСТЕКСТУ тишина шифровалки нарушилась.
The licenses of the figures are given in the list of figures on page This PDF was generated by the LATEX typesetting software. The LATEX.
С интервалом в три минуты была зарегистрирована вторая серия команд запирания-отпирания. Согласно регистру, кто-то открывал ее компьютер, пока ее не было в комнате. Но это невозможно. У нее перехватило дыхание. Единственным кандидатом в подозреваемые был Грег Хейл, но Сьюзан могла поклясться, что никогда не давала ему свой персональный код. Следуя классической криптографической процедуре, она выбрала пароль произвольно и не стала его записывать. То, что Хейл мог его угадать, было исключено: число комбинаций составляло тридцать шесть в пятой степени, или свыше шестидесяти миллионов.
Никогда еще получение разведывательной информации не было столь легким делом. Шифры, перехваченные АНБ, вводились в ТРАНСТЕКСТ и через несколько минуты выплевывались из машины в виде открытого текста. Секретов отныне больше не существовало. Чтобы еще больше усилить впечатление о своей некомпетентности, АНБ подвергло яростным нападкам программы компьютерного кодирования, утверждая, что они мешают правоохранительным службам ловить и предавать суду преступников. Участники движения за гражданские свободы торжествовали и настаивали на том, что АНБ ни при каких обстоятельствах не должно читать их почту.