Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality pdf

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inclusive fitness theory and eusociality pdf

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Metrics details. Today we know that these include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions, and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin-selection, assortation or homophily, and social synergies drive the evolution of cooperation. An Extended Inclusive Fitness Theory EIFT synthesizes the natural selection forces acting on biological evolution and on human economic interactions by assuming that natural selection driven by inclusive fitness produces agents with utility functions that exploit assortation and synergistic opportunities.

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Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Eusociality, in which some individuals reduce their own lifetime reproductive potential to raise the offspring of others, underlies the most advanced forms of social organization and the ecologically dominant role of social insects and humans. For the past four decades kin selection theory, based on the concept of inclusive fitness, has been the major theoretical attempt to explain the evolution of eusociality. Here we show the limitations of this approach.

Social behavior has long puzzled evolutionary biologists, since the classical theory of natural selection maintains that individuals should not sacrifice their own fitness to affect that of others. Hamilton—inclusive fitness theory—provides the most fundamental and general explanation for the evolution and maintenance of social behavior in the natural world. James Marshall guides readers through the vast and confusing literature on the evolution of social behavior, introducing and explaining the competing theories that claim to provide answers to questions such as why animals evolve to behave altruistically. Using simple statistical language and techniques that practicing biologists will be familiar with, he provides a comprehensive yet easily understandable treatment of key concepts and their repeated misinterpretations. Particular attention is paid to how more realistic features of behavior, such as nonadditivity and conditionality, can complicate analysis.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Arising from M. Nowak, C. Wilson Nature , —

Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

In evolutionary biology , inclusive fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success as defined by W. Hamilton in An individual's own child, who carries one half of the individual's genes, is defined as one offspring equivalent. From the gene's point of view , evolutionary success ultimately depends on leaving behind the maximum number of copies of itself in the population. Prior to Hamilton's work, it was generally assumed that genes only achieved this through the number of viable offspring produced by the individual organism they occupied. However, this overlooked a wider consideration of a gene's success, most clearly in the case of the social insects where the vast majority of individuals do not produce their own offspring. Hamilton showed mathematically that, because other members of a population may share one's genes, a gene can also increase its evolutionary success by indirectly promoting the reproduction and survival of other individuals who also carry that gene.

PLoS Biol 13 4 : e This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Competing interests: We have read the journal's policy and have the following potential conflict: Liao et al criticize Nowak et al. Here we defend Nowak et al. Inclusive fitness, long regarded as an important concept in sociobiology, was shown by Nowak, Tarnita, and Wilson NTW [ 1 ] to be of limited value for understanding the evolution of social behavior.

Mathematical models based on direct fitness calculations may be able to explain important aspects of social evolution in insects. Social organization is a fundamental feature of many organisms, including humans. How can genes that make their carriers sterile be a successful evolutionary invention? Such genes can only survive in a population if they are expressed in some of the individuals that carry them, but not in others. Then these genes may be passed on if the workers preferentially help other members of the population that also carry these genes but do not express them i. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that the genes responsible for the forms of helping behavior displayed by worker insects can successfully spread in a population if the workers are sufficiently closely related to the individuals they help.

Inclusive fitness theory has explained why eusociality has evolved only in monogamous lineages, and why it is correlated with certain.

Inclusive fitness

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Evolution: Modeling evolutionary transitions in social insects

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  • Inclusive fitness in finite populations—effects of heterogeneity and synergy. Ndirerumil1963 - 04.05.2021 at 21:43
  • PDF | Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson , (​); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory | Find​. Giordano V. - 05.05.2021 at 06:26
  • Contrary to the expectations of kin selection theory, intracolony relatedness in eusocial insects is often low. Umotovhey - 09.05.2021 at 16:26
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