Vitamin chart and benefits pdf
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- Fruit And Vegetable Vitamin Chart Pdf - Vitamins Chart Mineral Chart Diet Chart Health Diet
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- Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources
A Harvard Health article.
Fruit And Vegetable Vitamin Chart Pdf - Vitamins Chart Mineral Chart Diet Chart Health Diet
Most are water-soluble, meaning they dissolve in water. In contrast, the fat-soluble vitamins are similar to oil and do not dissolve in water. Fat-soluble vitamins are most abundant in high-fat foods and are much better absorbed into your bloodstream when you eat them with fat. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the fat-soluble vitamins, their health benefits, functions and main dietary sources. Vitamin A plays a key role in maintaining your vision. Without it, you would go blind.
Vitamin A is not a single compound. Rather, it is a group of fat-soluble compounds collectively known as retinoids. The most common dietary form of vitamin A is retinol. Other forms — retinal and retinoic acid — are found in the body, but absent or rare in foods. Vitamin A2 3,4-dehydroretinal is an alternative, less active form found in freshwater fish 1. Vitamin A is best known for its vital role in maintaining vision.
Vitamin A is only found in animal-sourced foods. The main natural food sources are liver, fish liver oil and butter. The table below shows the amount of vitamin A in 3. Vitamin A can also be derived from certain carotenoid antioxidants found in plants.
They are collectively known as provitamin A. The most efficient of these is beta-carotene, which is abundant in many vegetables, such as carrots, kale and spinach 9 , The best dietary sources of vitamin A include liver and fish oil.
Sufficient amounts can also be derived from provitamin A carotenoids, like beta-carotene, which are found in vegetables. The table below shows the recommended daily allowance RDA for vitamin A. The RDA is the estimated amount of vitamin A that the vast majority about This table also shows the tolerable upper intake limit UL , which is the highest level of daily intake considered safe for For children, it ranges from 1, IU mcg to 2, IU mcg.
However, vegans may be at risk, since pre-formed vitamin A is only found in animal-sourced foods. Although provitamin A is abundant in many fruits and vegetables, it is not always efficiently converted into retinol, the active form of vitamin A. Deficiency is also widespread in some developing countries where food variety is limited.
It is common in populations whose diet is dominated by refined rice, white potatoes or cassava and lacking in meat, fat and vegetables. A common symptom of early deficiency includes night blindness.
As it progresses, it may lead to more serious conditions, such as:. Severe vitamin A deficiency may lead to blindness. Other symptoms may include hair loss, skin problems and an increased risk of infections. Overdosing on vitamin A leads to an adverse condition known as hypervitaminosis A. Its main causes are excessive doses of vitamin A from supplements, liver or fish liver oil.
In contrast, high intake of provitamin A does not cause hypervitaminosis. The main symptoms and consequences of toxicity include fatigue, headache, irritability, stomach pain, joint pain, lack of appetite, vomiting, blurred vision, skin problems and inflammation in the mouth and eyes. It may also lead to liver damage, bone loss and hair loss. At extremely high doses, vitamin A can be fatal People are advised to avoid exceeding the upper limit for intake, which is 10, IU mcg per day for adults.
Higher amounts, or , IU mg , may cause acute hypervitaminosis A in adults. Children can experience harmful effects at much lower amounts Individual tolerance varies considerably. Children and people with liver diseases like cirrhosis and hepatitis are at an increased risk and need to take extra care. Pregnant women should also be especially careful, since high doses of vitamin A may harm the fetus.
Doses as low as 25, IU per day have been linked with birth defects High doses of vitamin A may lead to hypervitaminosis A, which is associated with various symptoms.
Pregnant women should avoid eating high amounts of vitamin A because of the risk of birth defects. While supplements are beneficial for those who suffer from deficiency, most people get enough vitamin A from their diet and do not need to take supplements. Yet, controlled studies suggest that vitamin A supplements may benefit certain people even if their diet meets the basic requirements.
For instance, vitamin A supplements may help treat measles in children 20 , Studies suggest that vitamin A acts by suppressing the measles virus Supplements mainly benefit those who are low or deficient in vitamin A. One exception is children with measles, as studies show that supplements may help treat the disease. Vitamin A, also known as retinol, is a fat-soluble vitamin traditionally associated with vision and eye health. It can also be derived from provitamin A carotenoids found in red, yellow and orange vegetables, as well as some leafy, dark-green vegetables.
Deficiency is rare in developed countries, but is most common among people who follow diets lacking in diversity, especially those dominated by rice, white potatoes and cassava. Early symptoms of vitamin A deficiency include night blindness, and severe deficiency may eventually lead to total blindness.
Pregnant women should be extra careful not to eat excessive amounts of vitamin A because of the risk of birth defects. It is best known for its beneficial effects on bone health, and deficiency makes you highly susceptible to bone fractures.
Vitamin D is a collective term used to describe a few related fat-soluble compounds. Dietary vitamin D can be classified as vitamin D2, found in mushrooms and plants, and vitamin D3, found in animal-derived foods.
Vitamin D has numerous roles and functions, but only a few are well researched. These include the following:. Once absorbed into the bloodstream, the liver and kidneys change calciferol into calcitriol, which is the biologically active form of vitamin D. It can also be stored for later use in the form of calcidiol. Vitamin D3 is more efficiently converted into calcitriol than vitamin D2 24 , One of the most important functions of vitamin D is the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus levels in blood.
It benefits bone health by promoting the absorption of these minerals. Your body can produce all the vitamin D it needs as long as you regularly expose large parts of your skin to sunlight However, many people spend little time in the sun or do so fully clothed. Justifiably, others cover their skin with sunscreen to prevent sunburns. While sunscreen use is highly recommended, it reduces the amount of vitamin D produced by your skin.
Few foods naturally contain vitamin D. The best dietary sources are fatty fish and fish oil, but mushrooms that have been exposed to ultraviolet light may also contain significant amounts. The chart below shows the amounts of vitamin D in 3. To find out more ideas of foods you can eat to increase your vitamin D intake, read this article. Your body can produce the vitamin D it needs if you regularly expose large parts of your skin to sunlight. However, most people need to get it from their diet or supplements, such as fatty fish or fish oil.
Since no RDA has been established for infants, the values marked with an asterisk are the adequate intake AI. If you want to find out more about the optimal intake of vitamin D, read this article. The amount is slightly higher for elderly adults, at IU 20 mcg. Severe vitamin D deficiency is rare, but mild forms of deficiency or insufficiency are common among hospitalized people as well as the elderly.
Risk factors of deficiency are dark skin color, old age, obesity, low sun exposure and diseases that impair fat absorption. The most well-known consequences of vitamin D deficiency include soft bones, weak muscles and an increased risk of bone fractures. This condition is called osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with poor immune function, an increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases 29 , Other signs of deficiency or insufficiency may include fatigue, depression, hair loss and impaired wound healing.
Observational studies have also linked low vitamin D levels or deficiency with an increased risk of dying from cancer and an elevated risk of heart attacks 31 , The main symptoms of vitamin D deficiency include fatigue, weak muscles, soft bones, an increased risk of fractures and susceptibility to infections.
The main consequence of toxicity is hypercalcemia, a condition characterized by excessive amounts of calcium in the blood. Symptoms include headache, nausea, lack of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, kidney and heart damage, high blood pressure and fetal abnormalities, to name a few. People are generally advised to avoid exceeding the upper limit of vitamin D intake, which is 4, IU per day for adults.
Higher amounts, ranging from 40,—, IU 1,—2, mcg per day, may cause symptoms of toxicity in adults when taken daily for one or two months. Keep in mind that much lower doses may harm young children. To learn more about how much vitamin D you can safely take, read this article. Vitamin D is toxic in high doses. The most serious symptoms are caused by dangerously high levels of calcium in blood, which may harm the heart and kidneys.
For people who spend little time in the sun and seldom eat fatty fish or liver, supplements can be very beneficial.
Supplements may also reduce the risk of respiratory tract infections 35 ,
Vitamins help your body grow and work the way it should. There are 13 essential vitamins — vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, B 6 , B 12 , and folate. Vitamins have different jobs to help keep the body working properly. Some vitamins help you resist infections and keep your nerves healthy, while others may help your body get energy from food or help your blood clot properly. By following the Dietary Guidelines , you will get enough of most of these vitamins from food. Like vitamins, minerals also help your body function. Minerals are elements that our bodies need to function that can be found on the earth and in foods.
Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins. This means that these vitamins are required for the body to work properly. They are:. Each of the vitamins listed below has an important job in the body. A vitamin deficiency occurs when you do not get enough of a certain vitamin. Vitamin deficiency can cause health problems.
The Vitamin Chart. Fat Soluble Vitamins (A, D, E, K) can be stored in the body and need not be consumed daily. While it is difficult to “overdose” on them.
Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources
Beth Bolt began her career in the health sciences by graduating from the University of Colorado School of Pharmacy in Beth has worked as a community and home health pharmacist for more than 20 years and turned her passion for educating people on their health and medications into a medical writing career. She has authored articles for several publications on a variety of health-related topics and has logged thousands of hours writing drug monographs and answering Ask the Pharmacist questions in an online format.