Essay on global warming and climate change pdf
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Climate change is defined as the shift in climate patterns mainly caused by greenhouse gas emissions from natural systems and human activities. So far, anthropogenic activities have caused about 1. In , the world encountered cases of natural disasters which are mainly related to the climate.
Global warming , the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries. Increases in greenhouse gases —i. Continued global warming is expected to impact everything from energy use to water availability to crop productivity throughout the world.
Poor countries and communities with limited abilities to adapt to these changes are expected to suffer disproportionately. Global warming is already being associated with increases in the incidence of severe and extreme weather, heavy flooding , and wildfires —phenomena that threaten homes, dams, transportation networks, and other facets of human infrastructure.
Temperature increases related to global warming have been the most pronounced at the poles, where they often make the difference between frozen and melted ice. Polar bears rely on small gaps in the ice to hunt their prey. As these gaps widen because of continued melting, prey capture has become more challenging for these animals. In the IPCC reported that the interval between and saw an increase in global average surface temperature of approximately 0.
The increase is closer to 1. A special report produced by the IPCC in honed this estimate further, noting that human beings and human activities have been responsible for a worldwide average temperature increase of between 0. The predicted rise in temperature was based on a range of possible scenarios that accounted for future greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation severity reduction measures and on uncertainties in the model projections.
Some of the main uncertainties include the precise role of feedback processes and the impacts of industrial pollutants known as aerosols , which may offset some warming. Such damage would include increased extinction of many plant and animal species, shifts in patterns of agriculture , and rising sea levels.
By all but a few national governments had begun the process of instituting carbon reduction plans as part of the Paris Agreement , a treaty designed to help countries keep global warming to 1. Authors of a special report published by the IPCC in noted that should carbon emissions continue at their present rate, the increase in average near-surface air temperatures would reach 1.
Past IPCC assessments reported that the global average sea level rose by some 19—21 cm 7. It also predicted, again depending on a wide range of scenarios, that the global average sea level would rise 26—77 cm The scenarios referred to above depend mainly on future concentrations of certain trace gases, called greenhouse gases , that have been injected into the lower atmosphere in increasing amounts through the burning of fossil fuels for industry, transportation , and residential uses.
In the IPCC reported that concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides in the atmosphere surpassed those found in ice cores dating back , years. Of all these gases, carbon dioxide is the most important, both for its role in the greenhouse effect and for its role in the human economy. It has been estimated that, at the beginning of the industrial age in the midth century, carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere were roughly parts per million ppm.
By the middle of they had risen to ppm, and, if fossil fuels continue to be burned at current rates, they are projected to reach ppm by the midst century—essentially, a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations in years.
A vigorous debate is in progress over the extent and seriousness of rising surface temperatures, the effects of past and future warming on human life, and the need for action to reduce future warming and deal with its consequences. This article provides an overview of the scientific background and public policy debate related to the subject of global warming. It considers the causes of rising near-surface air temperatures, the influencing factors, the process of climate research and forecasting, the possible ecological and social impacts of rising temperatures, and the public policy developments since the midth century.
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External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Michael E. An overview of the role greenhouse gases play in modifying Earth's climate. During the second half of the 20th century and early part of the 21st century, global average surface temperature increased and sea level rose. Over the same period, the amount of snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere decreased. Top Questions. Graph of the predicted increase in Earth's average surface temperature according to a series of climate change scenarios that assume different levels of economic development, population growth, and fossil fuel use.
The assumptions made by each scenario are given at the bottom of the graph. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. The greenhouse effect on Earth. Some incoming sunlight is reflected by Earth's atmosphere and surface, but most is absorbed by the surface, which is warmed.
Infrared IR radiation is then emitted from the surface. Some IR radiation escapes to space, but some is absorbed by the atmosphere's greenhouse gases especially water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane and reradiated in all directions, some to space and some back toward the surface, where it further warms the surface and the lower atmosphere. Load Next Page.
Throughout its long history, Earth has warmed and cooled time and again. Earth has experienced climate change in the past without help from humanity. But the current climatic warming is occurring much more rapidly than past warming events. These natural causes are still in play today, but their influence is too small or they occur too slowly to explain the rapid warming seen in recent decades. Some of this warming will occur even if future greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, because the Earth system has not yet fully adjusted to environmental changes we have already made. The impact of global warming is far greater than just increasing temperatures.
What is global warming? What causes global warming? What is climate change? Is it different from global warming? What is a climate change impact? What does global warming have to do with severe weather, like storms, heat waves, droughts, and hurricanes?
PDF | This review article will offer compelling evidence that global climate change caused by global warming is already underway and is need.
What is the difference between global warming and climate change?
For the warming over the last century, there is no convincing alternative explanation. Global data show that was the warmest year on record and the third consecutive year for record global average surface temperatures. The emission of greenhouses gases GHGs , 6 which move about in the atmosphere, is a major cause of global climate change. Even with drastic GHG reductions, almost half of humans will face deadly heat. Although a number of U.
The effects of climate change span the physical environment , ecosystems and human societies. It also includes the economic and social changes which stem from living in a warmer world. Human-caused climate change is one of the threats to sustainability. Many physical impacts of climate change are already visible, including extreme weather events, glacier retreat ,  changes in the timing of seasonal events e. Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and humans.