Anatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system pdf
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- Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System
- 12.1 Structure and Function of the Nervous System
- Autonomic Nervous System
The somatic nervous system SNS deals with sensory input and voluntary motor efferent activities, while the autonomic nervous system ANS deals only with efferent motor signals from the CNS to control activities in the body that are distinct from those under conscious voluntary control. The targets of efferents are called effectors, and these are organs, muscles or glands. The autonomic nervous system is also called the visceral nervous system because it controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands, which make up the viscera of the body.
Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System
The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system maintains internal organ homeostasis and initiates the stress response. Physiological changes induced by the sympathetic nervous system include accelerating the heart rate, widening bronchial passages, decreasing motility of the large intestine, dilating the pupils, and causing perspiration. Stress—as in the hyperarousal of the flight-or-fight response—is thought to counteract the parasympathetic system, which generally works to promote maintenance of the body at rest. Sympathetic nervous system : The sympathetic nervous system extends from the thoracic to lumbar vertebrae and has connections with the thoracic, abdominal aortic, and pelvic plexuses. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for regulating many homeostatic mechanisms in living organisms. Fibers from the SNS innervate tissues in almost every organ system and provide physiological regulation over diverse body processes including pupil diameter, gut motility movement , and urinary output. The SNS is perhaps best known for mediating the neuronal and hormonal stress response commonly known as the fight-or-flight response, also known as sympatho-adrenal response of the body.
12.1 Structure and Function of the Nervous System
In biology , the nervous system is a highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body, then works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists mainly of nerves , which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons , that connect the CNS to every other part of the body. Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent. Spinal nerves serve both functions and are called mixed nerves.
The autonomic nervous system coordinates involuntary control of viscera and other tissues throughout the body, with the exception of skeletal muscle. This branch of the central nervous system, organized into parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions, integrates efferent and afferent fibers that regulate the activities of the majority of organs, glands, and smooth musculature found in the body. The presynaptic cell bodies of neurons composing both categories originate in the gray matter of the spinal column, but are classified by fundamental differences. Anatomically, the origin of the sympathetic thoracolumbar division of the central nervous system lies between the first thoracic T1 and the second or third lumbar section L2 or L3. In contrast, the exiting fibers of the parasympathetic division craniosacral originate from both the medulla oblongata and the sacral portion of the spinal cord S2 to S4. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The autonomic nervous system regulates certain body processes, such as blood pressure and the rate of breathing. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system can affect any body part or process. Autonomic disorders may be reversible or progressive. The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that supplies the internal organs, including the blood vessels, stomach, intestine, liver, kidneys, bladder, genitals, lungs, pupils, heart, and sweat, salivary, and digestive glands. After the autonomic nervous system receives information about the body and external environment, it responds by stimulating body processes, usually through the sympathetic division, or inhibiting them, usually through the parasympathetic division. An autonomic nerve pathway involves two nerve cells.
HISTORICAL CONSIDERATIONS. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. Sympathetic Nervous System. Parasympathetic Nervous System. CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY.
Autonomic Nervous System
Skip to content. Skip to navigation. Firstly, with the nervous system there are many new terms you will likely come across, whether its in this section, in other anatomy text books and in the fitness industry. Neurons nerve cells are the building blocks of all nerves.
The autonomic nervous system regulates a variety of body process that takes place without conscious effort. The autonomic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that is responsible for regulating involuntary body functions, such as heartbeat, blood flow, breathing, and digestion.
Basic anatomy and physiology
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: This manuscript discusses the physiology of the autonomic nervous system ANS. The following topics are presented: regulation of activity; efferent pathways; sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions; neurotransmitters, their receptors and the termination of their activity; functions of the ANS; and the adrenal medullae. In addition, the application of this material to the practice of pharmacy is of special interest. View on PubMed.
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Фонтейн, которого он знал, был внимателен к мелочам и требовал самой полной информации.