List of metals and their ores pdf

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list of metals and their ores pdf

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When the earth was formed the molten mass contained the many different metals which today we extract and use in huge quantities. Most of the metals combined with rock when molten, to form metallic ores. The most common of these are bauxite, from which aluminium is extracted, and iron ore from which iron is extracted.

A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form in nature, either pure or as an alloy. Only gold, silver, copper and the platinum metals occur in nature in larger amounts. Over geological time scales, very few metals can resist natural weathering processes like oxidation.

Metals. General properties. Extraction and classification of metals

A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form in nature, either pure or as an alloy. Only gold, silver, copper and the platinum metals occur in nature in larger amounts. Over geological time scales, very few metals can resist natural weathering processes like oxidation. This is why only the less reactive metals such as gold and platinum are found as native metals.

The others usually occur as isolated pockets where a natural chemical process reduces a common compound or ore of the metal. This leaves the pure metal behind as small flakes or inclusions. The process of extracting metals from their ores called smelting is thought to have been discovered around BC. However, these metals could be found only in relatively small amounts, so they could not be used extensively. So while copper and iron were known well before the Copper Age and Iron Age, they would not have a large impact on humankind until the technology to smelt them from their ores, and thus mass-produce them, appeared.

An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements in solid solution in which the major component is a metal. Most pure metals are either too soft, brittle, or chemically reactive for practical use.

Combining different ratios of metals as alloys modifies the properties of pure metals to produce desirable characteristics. The aim of making alloys is generally to make the metals less brittle, harder, or more resistant to corrosion, or to improve their color or luster. Of all the metallic alloys in use today, the alloys of iron steel, stainless steel, cast iron, tool steel, and alloy steel make up the largest proportion both by quantity and commercial value.

Iron alloyed with various proportions of carbon gives low, mid and high carbon steels; the increased carbon levels reduce ductility and toughness. Other significant metallic alloys are those of aluminium, titanium, copper, and magnesium. Copper alloys have been known since prehistory—bronze gave the Bronze Age its name—and have many applications today, most importantly in electrical wiring. The alloys of the other three metals were developed more recently; due to their chemical reactivity, they require electrolytic extraction processes.

The alloys of aluminium, titanium, and magnesium are valued for their high strength-to-weight ratios, and magnesium can also provide electromagnetic shielding. These materials are ideal for situations where high strength-to-weight ratio is more important than material cost, such as in aerospace and some automotive applications.

Alloys specially designed for highly demanding applications, such as jet engines, may contain more than ten elements. Metals are often extracted from the Earth by means of mining, resulting in ores that are relatively rich sources of the requisite elements.

Ore is located by prospecting techniques, followed by the exploration and examination of deposits. Mineral sources are generally divided into surface mines, which are mined by excavation using heavy equipment, and subsurface mines.

After the ore is mined, the metals must be extracted, usually by chemical or electrolytic reduction. Pyrometallurgy uses high temperatures to convert ore into raw metals, while hydrometallurgy employs aqueous chemistry for the same purpose.

The methods used depend on the metal and their contaminants. When a metal ore is an ionic compound of that metal and a non-metal, the ore must usually be smelted or heated with a reducing agent to extract the pure metal. Many common metals, such as iron, are smelted using carbon as a reducing agent. Some metals, such as aluminium and sodium, have no commercially practical reducing agent, and are extracted using electrolysis instead. Sulfide ores are not reduced directly to the metal, but are roasted in air to convert them to oxides.

Boundless vets and curates high-quality, openly licensed content from around the Internet. This particular resource used the following sources:. Skip to main content. Search for:. Occurrence of Metals. Learning Objective Describe the characteristics of metal alloys and the natural occurence of native metals.

Key Points Very few metals can resist natural weathering processes like oxidation, which is why generally only the less reactive metals, such as gold and platinum, are found as native metals. The aim of making alloys is generally to make them less brittle, harder, resistant to corrosion, or have a more desirable color and luster. Show Sources Boundless vets and curates high-quality, openly licensed content from around the Internet.

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List of Important Metals and their Ores

A native metal is any metal that is found pure in its metallic form in nature. Among the alloys found in native state have been brass , bronze , pewter , German silver , osmiridium , electrum , white gold , silver-mercury amalgam , and gold-mercury amalgam. Only gold, silver, copper and the platinum group occur native in large amounts. Over geological time scales, very few metals can resist natural weathering processes like oxidation , so mainly the less reactive metals such as gold and platinum are found as native metals. The others usually occur as isolated pockets where a natural chemical process reduces a common compound or ore of the metal, leaving the pure metal behind as small flakes or inclusions. Non-metallic elements occurring in the native state include carbon and sulfur. Silicon , a semi-metal, has rarely been found in the native state as small inclusions in gold.

Metals are the element that loses electrons easily and have positive ions or cations. It consists of metallic bonds. Detail analysis of Metals its properties and reactivity series. Ores are those minerals from which metals are extracted commercially and economically. Elements of Metals can be broken down into several categories; one of them is transition metals.

metals and their ores list

Ore is natural rock or sediment that contains one or more valuable minerals , typically containing metals , that can be mined, treated and sold at a profit. Ore is extracted from the earth through mining and treated or refined , often via smelting , to extract the valuable metals or minerals. The value of the metals or minerals a rock contains must be weighed against the cost of extraction to determine whether it is of sufficiently high grade to be worth mining, and is therefore considered an ore. Minerals of interest are generally oxides , sulfides , silicates , or native metals such as copper or gold. Ores must be processed to extract the elements of interest from the waste rock.

List of Important Metals and their Ores. Metals are the element that loses electrons easily and have positive ions or cations. It consists of metallic bonds.

Most pure metals are either too soft, brittle, or chemically reactive for practical use, and few pure metals occur naturally.

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