Biodiversity threats and conservation pdf
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- Grand Challenges in Global Biodiversity Threats
- What is Biodiversity?
- Biodiversity: Concept, threats and conservation
Grand Challenges in Global Biodiversity Threats
Biodiversity is fundamental as it ensures natural sustainability of all life on earth not only for the current population but also for the future generations. However, biodiversity continues to be threatened and in consequence, it affects the survival of humans. According to the reports, here are the six major threats to biodiversity and actions that can be taken to address the situation.
The dramatic alteration of habitats directly threatens biodiversity. When such habitats are lost due to deforestation and other anthropogenic activities such as mining, the respective environments are unable to provide shelter, food, water, or breeding grounds for the living organisms. In other words, it leads to unhealthy and unbalanced ecosystems that result in the loss of biodiversity and extinction.
Deforestation , in particular, is associated with the destruction of about 18 million acres of forest habitats annually, damaging the ecosystems on which countless species depend on for survival.
For one, corporations and companies can take up the wise practice of refusing to use paper and timber products that encourage deforestation. Likewise, awareness creation should be done so that consumers can desist from supporting companies or manufacturers that use timber and paper to make their products and most importantly, those that utilize unsustainable natural resource extraction or manufacturing processes. Governments and regulatory agencies should also take the lead in ensuring the enactment of stronger forest protection laws and policies.
Individuals and organizations can also participate by support environmental conservation through charities and creating awareness. The global climatic changes throughout the history of the plant have definitely modified life and ecosystems in the planet. As an outcome, crucial habitats have been destroyed and a number of species have gone extinct with a huge majority at the verge of extinction.
It therefore means that if the global temperatures continue to change drastically, especially due to anthropogenic activities that accelerate the process, the threats to biodiversity will continue to expand as ecosystems and species will not be able to adapt.
For instance, the decreasing Arctic sea ice and the increasing ocean temperatures are to blame for the changes in vegetation zones and deterioration of marine wildlife.
Besides, the ecosystems and species that cannot cope die out. Climate change is mostly exacerbated because of human activities with regards to destroying carbon sinks and their dependency on using fossil fuels. Hence, if effective actions can be taken to reduce the amount of carbon footprint , the world can be assured of a better tomorrow and less worries about climate change.
Individuals, organizations and industries need to reduce their carbon footprints and they should equally participate in awareness creation. Cities and international governments can also charge for carbon emissions and enact policies that curtail activities which destroy the carbon sinks. On the account of the ever rising human population , there has been a correlational increase in demand for manufactured products, essential goods and services. The high demands of these things have resulted in overfishing , overhunting, over-harvesting and excessive mineral resource extraction which has highly contributed to biodiversity loss.
Mineral extraction, poaching, excessive logging and other forms of resource exploitation for profit has heightened the risks of species extinction. It has also altered natural habits therefore destroying food chains and interfering with the ecological balance. Continued awareness creation and conservation are the main strategies for managing overexploitation, particularly pertaining to overfishing , over-harvesting and poaching. Relevant environmental protection agencies and governments also need to implement rules curtailing practices that cause overexploitation of resources.
Individual effort should aim towards being mindful of the products we consume and buy. Accordingly, the use of fertilizers beyond limits has contributed to increased level of nitrogen and phosphorous nutrients in the natural ecosystems.
As much as the nutrients exists naturally in all ecosystems, the manufacturing of artificial fertilizer with reactive nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients to increase crop productivity has altered the ecological balance over time thereby threatening the survival of ecosystems.
Particularly, the survival of species that flourish in phosphorous or nitrogen-poor environments are increasingly threatened. Furthermore, leaches and entry into water systems have resulted in increased eutrophication and the creation of anoxic oxygen deficient zones in marine habitats.
To address the problem of nutrient loading, considerable improvements are needed to ensure the effectiveness of the nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers used within production systems. The artificial production of these fertilizers should not only aim at meeting the global food demands but also decreasing environmental problems. Farmers should also reduce their dependency on using high quantities of nutrient fertilizer and seek alternatives such as leaving the land fallow after harvesting to encourage nutrient recycling.
Pollution has continued to harm the biosphere by releasing and depositing toxic chemicals into the atmospheric, terrestrial and marine systems. Pollution has also depleted ozone levels, created dead zones in marine habitats due to toxicity and acid rains , altered species feeding and breading habits, and even caused the death of many species due to oil spills or the consumption of plastic and other toxic substances. There are a number of ways for curbing pollution.
Anti-pollution laws and policies at the local, state and international level are the most practical for curbing pollution as they play a critical role in restricting pollution. Individuals can also take a number of initiatives to fight water, air and land pollution by embracing effective actions such as conserving energy at home, recycling, use of safe and non-toxic products, and using public transport.
Awareness creation and advocacy is as well essential. It can be done through the media, online educative forums, and in various institutions to make people realize and understand the causes and consequences of environmental pollution. The use of renewable and green energy sources can also lower dependence on fossil fuels thereby reducing green house gas emissions that lead to global warming and the formation of acid rain.
Accordingly, they upset the native biota and ecosystems thereby causing extinctions and massive threats to biodiversity. The problem of invasive alien species is global and for this reason, it requires intervention at the local, state and international level.
Local authorities and states need to establish systems to manage and prevent invasive alien species through risk assessments as a strategy of predicting the possibility of species becoming invasive. The assessments should also aim at determining the potential ecological damages and put in place effective preventive measures to counter the likely environmental impacts.
Therefore, creating systems to stop the introduction of invasive alien species even before it happens, quickly eliminating newly detected invaders, and effectively monitoring new invasions are the most efficient strategies. International bodies and scientist can assists in research and information quantification by using more creative means such as Google street view and other advanced technological techniques.
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Most conservation research and its applications tend to happen most frequently at reasonably fine spatial and temporal scales—for example, mesocosm experiments, single-species population viability analyses, recovery plans, patch-level restoration approaches, site-specific biodiversity surveys, et cetera. Yet, at the other end of the scale spectrum, there have been many overviews of biodiversity loss and degradation, accompanied by the development of multinational policy recommendations to encourage more sustainable decision making at lower levels of sovereign governance e. Yet truly global research in conservation science is fact comparatively rare, as poignantly demonstrated by the debates surrounding the evidence for and measurement of planetary tipping points Barnosky et al. Apart from the planetary scale of human-driven disruption to Earth's climate system Lenton, , both scientific evidence and policy levers tend to be applied most often at finer, more tractable research and administrative scales. But as the massive ecological footprint of humanity has grown exponentially over the last century footprintnetwork. Consequently, our responses to these planet-wide phenomena must also become more global in scope. But we are generally less successful in translating this evidence into meaningful policy and actions Gibbons et al.
Biodiversity is fundamental as it ensures natural sustainability of all life on earth not only for the current population but also for the future generations. However, biodiversity continues to be threatened and in consequence, it affects the survival of humans. According to the reports, here are the six major threats to biodiversity and actions that can be taken to address the situation. The dramatic alteration of habitats directly threatens biodiversity. When such habitats are lost due to deforestation and other anthropogenic activities such as mining, the respective environments are unable to provide shelter, food, water, or breeding grounds for the living organisms. In other words, it leads to unhealthy and unbalanced ecosystems that result in the loss of biodiversity and extinction.
What is Biodiversity?
The core threat to biodiversity on the planet, and therefore a threat to human welfare, is the combination of human population growth and resource exploitation. The human population requires resources to survive and grow, and those resources are being removed unsustainably from the environment. The three greatest proximate threats to biodiversity are habitat loss, overharvesting, and introduction of exotic species. The first two of these are a direct result of human population growth and resource use. The third results from increased mobility and trade.
Biodiversity is the biological variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is typically a measure of variation at the genetic , species , and ecosystem level. Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions.
Founded in , Biodiversity and Conservation is an international journal that publishes articles on all aspects of biological diversity, its conservation, and sustainable use. It is multidisciplinary and covers living organisms of all kinds in any habitat, focusing on studies using novel or little-used approaches, and ones from less studied biodiversity rich regions or habitats.
Biodiversity: Concept, threats and conservation
That's why biodiversity is important. The wide variety of species on Earth, whether they're plants, animals or microscopic organisms, are vital to keep the world's many ecosystems healthy, balanced and thriving — growing plants we can eat, trees we can shade under, and landscapes to use for everything from vacations to computer screensavers. In other words, biodiversity ensures natural sustainability for all life on the planet — think more abundant crops and fresher air, for example. More than 3 billion people depend on marine and coastal biodiversity, while more than 1. The loss of biodiversity affects the lives of more than 1 billion people living in drylands.
Marine biodiversity is higher in benthic rather than pelagic systems, and in coasts rather than the open ocean since there is a greater range of habitats near the coast. The highest species diversity occurs in the Indonesian archipelago and decreases radially from there. The terrestrial pattern of increasing diversity from poles to tropics occurs from the Arctic to the tropics but does not seem to occur in the southern hemisphere where diversity is high at high latitides. Losses of marine diversity are highest in coastal areas largely as a result of conflicting uses of coastal habitats.
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