Evaporation rates of liquid hydrocarbon spills on land and water pdf

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evaporation rates of liquid hydrocarbon spills on land and water pdf

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Evaporation Rate of Volatile Liquids. Second Edition.

Evaporation of Pure Liquids from Open Surfaces

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Crude oil, and refined products, in the marine environment are subject to physical, chemical, and biological processes that change their composition and environmental impact. The weathering of crude oil involves evaporation or volatilization, emulsification, dissolution, and oxidation chemical, photo-, and microbial. The horizontal transport or movement of crude oil is accomplished through spreading, advection, dispersion, and entrainment, whereas the vertical transport of oil involves dispersion, entrainment, Langmuir circulation, sinking, overwashing, partitioning, and sedimentation. Crude oil from seeps and spills of persistent oils often form tar residues or tarballs that become stranded on the shoreline.

Pasquill’s Influence: On the Evaporation from Various Liquids into the Atmosphere

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually given to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters , but spills may also occur on land. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers , offshore platforms , drilling rigs and wells , as well as spills of refined petroleum products such as gasoline , diesel and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel , or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills penetrate into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals, reducing its insulating ability, and making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. Cleanup and recovery from an oil spill is difficult and depends upon many factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of the water affecting evaporation and biodegradation , and the types of shorelines and beaches involved.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Many spill models incorporate evaporation as a component of their prediction because of the large mass balance changes. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed.

We developed an estimation technique for the evaporation rate of volatile liquids from open surfaces in the presence of a flowing air stream which, we believe, is an improvement over previous methods, particularly when the air velocity is greater than about 50 centimeters per second feet per minute. The estimation technique is predicated on solution of the classical mass transfer coefficient model with the gas-phase mass transfer coefficient estimated by the correlation of Mackay and Matsugu. The new technique requires only the vapor pressure and molecular weight of the vaporizing substance, the ambient air temperature and velocity, and the area of the liquid pool for its solution. Other properties of the ambient air are incorporated into the model by the kinetic theory of gases. Our model was tested against experimental results on 19 different organic compounds generated by four different experimenters over a wide range of experimental conditions. The model matched the experimental data well, usually within 20 percent. The model can be used to obtain estimates of the evaporation rates of organic liquids resulting from spills or open surface operations.

Pasquill’s Influence: On the Evaporation from Various Liquids into the Atmosphere

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In addition, many oil and gas operations are augmented via injection of hydraulic fracturing HF fluids into the formation. Both produced water and HF fluids may contain hundreds of individual chemicals, some known to be detrimental to public health and the environment. Oil and gas production wastewater may serve a range of beneficial purposes, particularly in arid regions, if managed correctly.

These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online.

EVAPORATION OF OIL SPILLS

The Pasquill stability classification Pasquill enables us to apply the Gaussian diffusion model to solving air pollution problems in our daily life. The Gaussian diffusion model has been widely and routinely applied in industry to estimate the air concentration and to manage radioactive and hazardous wastes in recent years. An evaporation model taking into account the vertical variations of the mean wind speed and the eddy exchange coefficient was first introduced by Sutton

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Evaporation Systems-101

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