Ccnp questions and answers pdf
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- CCIE/CCNP 350-401 ENCOR Dumps Full Questions with VCE & PDF
- Ccnp Interview questions
- CCNP R&S Interview Questions with Answers Vol 1.0
Q-1 Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for reliable connections? Q-2 What is the difference between acknowledgments and handshaking? Answer: Handshaking is used to negotiate the properties of a connection that is being established. Acknowledgments are used to tell the sender that data has been successfully received by the destination during the use of a connection. Q-3 How many VTP modes are there and what are they?
CCIE/CCNP 350-401 ENCOR Dumps Full Questions with VCE & PDF
Then you are at the right place for getting good interview questions that can land your dream job. Also work with experts on security, wireless, voice and video solutions. Answer : Routing is the process in which items are forwarded from one location to another. Routing is a hop-by-hop paradigm.
Routing is a way to learn and maintain awareness of the network topology. Each router maintains a routing table in which it looks up the destination Layer 3 address to get the packet one step closer to its destination.
The switching function is the actual movement of temporary traffic through the router, from an inbound interface to an outbound interface. Question 2. Answer : The three types of routes are static routes, dynamic routes, and default routes.
Question 3. Answer : Static routes are routes that an administrator manually enters into a router. Dynamic routes are routes that a router learns automatically through a routing protocol. Question 4. What Is A Default Route? Answer : Also known as the gateway of last resort, a default route is a special type of static route with an all-zeros network and network mask. The default route is used to route any packets to a network that a router does not directly know about to a next-hop router.
By default, if a router receives a packet to a destination network that is not in its routing table, it drops the packet. When a default route is specified, the router does not drop the packet.
Instead, it forwards the packet to the IP address specified in the default route. Question 5. What Is A Routing Protocol? Answer : A Routing protocol defines the set of rules used by a router when it communicates with neighboring routers.
Routing protocols listens for packets from other participants in order to learn and maintain a routing table. Question 6. What Is Administrative Distance? Answer : Administrative distance AD is an integer from 0 to that rates the trustworthiness of routing information received on a router from a neighboring router. The AD is used as the tiebreaker when a router has multiple paths from different routing protocols to the same destination. The path with the lower AD is the one given priority.
Question 7. Answer : Distance vector Link-state Balanced hybrid. Question 8. Question 9. Answer : Also known as Bellman-Ford-Fulkerson algorithms, distance vector routing protocols pass complete routing tables to neighboring routers.
Neighboring routers then combine the received routing table with their own routing table. Each router receives a routing table from its directly connected neighbor. Distance vector routing tables include information about the total cost and the logical address of the first router on the path to each network they know about.
Question Answer : Distance vector routing protocols keep track of an internetwork by periodically broadcasting updates out all active interfaces. This broadcast contains the entire routing table. This method is often called routing by rumor. Slow convergence of distance vector routing protocols can cause inconsistent routing tables and routing loops. What Is Split Horizon? Answer : The rule of split horizon is that it is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which the original update came.
What Is Convergence? Answer : Convergence is when all routers have consistent knowledge and correct routing tables. What Is Route Poisoning? Answer : With route poisoning, when a distance vector routing protocol notices that a route is no longer valid, the route is advertised with an infinite metric, signifying that the route is bad. In RIP, a metric of 16 is used to signify infinity. Route poisoning is used with holddowns. What Are Hold-down Timers?
Answer : Hold-down timers prevent regular update messages from reinstating a route that might have gone bad. Hold-down timers also tell routers to hold for a period of time any changes that might affect routes. What Are Triggered Updates? Answer : When a router notices that a directly connected subnet has changed state, it immediately sends another routing update out its other interfaces rather than waiting for the routing update timer to expire.
Triggered updates are also known as Flash updates. Answer : IP RIP is a true distance vector routing protocol that sends its complete routing table out all active interfaces every 30 seconds. IP RIP uses a hop count as its metric to determine the best path to a remote network.
The maximum allowable hop count is 15, meaning that 16 is unreachable. There are two versions of RIP. Version 1 is classful, and version 2 is classless. IP RIP can load-balance over as many as six equal-cost paths. Answer : Sometimes you do not want RIP updates to propagate across the WAN, wasting valuable bandwidth or giving out valuable information about your internetwork.
The easiest way to stop RIP updates from propagating out an interface is to use the passive-interface global configuration command. IGRP has a default hop count of hops, with a maximum hop count of What Are Broadcast Domains? As with collisions, the more broadcasts that occur on the network, the slower your network will be.
This is because every device that receives a broadcast must process it to see if the broadcast is intended for it. Answer : Switches and bridges are used to break up collision domains. They create more collision domains and fewer collisions. Routers are used to break up broadcast domains.
They create more broadcast domains and smaller broadcast areas. Answer : Each layer of the OSI model can communicate only with the layer above it, below it, and parallel to it a peer layer. For example, the presentation layer can communicate with only the application layer, session layer, and presentation layer on the machine it is communicating with.
These layers communicate with each other using protocol data units PDUs. These PDUs control information that is added to the user data at each layer of the model. This information resides in fields called headers the front of the data field and trailers the end of the data field. When the SIA occurs, the router clears the neighbour that did not reply to the query. Answer : This is normal.
On point-to-point and point-to-multipoint networks, there are no designated routers DRs or backup designated routers BDRs. What Is Ospf Network Types? Answer : Broadcast, multi-access networks: Ehternet, token ring. Single mode operation. Five modes of operation. Answer : A RP is the focal point for multicast traffic. Traffic is forward to the RP from multicast sources. The RP then forwards traffic to multicast receivers. Each multicast router chooses the closet RP. If an RP fails, the routers switch to the next nearest RP after the unicast ip routing protocol converges.
Answer : Multicast forwarding decisions are based on the entries in the unicast IP routing table. Multicast is not dependent on how the unicast IP routing table was built; you cans use any dynamic interior routing protocol, static routes, or a combination of the two. RIP version 2 has a limited network diameter of 15 hops.
BGP relies on simple techniques for best path selection and loop detection, and can handle the number of network prefixes required for Internet routing. BGP advertises the summary, and all the specific routes of the summary unless they are specifically suppressed. What Is Synchronization? Learned from a BGP neighbor. Answer : MED is used to prefer a path into an autonomous system. A lower MED value is preferred.
Answer : IBGP is the protocol used between routers in the same autonomous system. EBGP is the protocol used between routers in different autonomous systems.
Ccnp Interview questions
There are a lot of opportunities from many reputed companies in the world. Describe why postal addresses and telephone numbers are routable. What is the purpose of a default route? Describe the difference between routing and switching. What does the term information hiding mean in relation to route summarization? How does the use of a hierarchical routing structure access, distribution, and core enable a scalable delivery system?
Then you are at the right place for getting good interview questions that can land your dream job. Also work with experts on security, wireless, voice and video solutions. Answer : Routing is the process in which items are forwarded from one location to another. Routing is a hop-by-hop paradigm. Routing is a way to learn and maintain awareness of the network topology.
CCNP R&S Interview Questions with Answers Vol 1.0
In addition to CCNA exams, professionals must pass either four separate exams, or a composite exam along with two separate exams. A postal address has three components that can be used to deliver mail: state, city, and street. A phone number has an area code and exchange.
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Top 20 Ccnp Interview questions and questions - 2018
The FIB is conceptually similar to a routing table or information base. It maintains a mirror image of the forwarding information contained in the IP routing table. When routing or topology changes occur in the network, the IP routing table is updated, and those changes are reflected in the FIB. Because there is a one-to-one correlation between FIB entries and routing table entries, the FIB contains all known routes and eliminates the need for route cache maintenance that is associated with earlier switching paths such as fast switching and optimum switching. A client device fails to see the enterprise SSID, but other client devices are connected to it. What is the cause of this issue?