A contemporary approach to substance use disorders and addiction counseling pdf

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a contemporary approach to substance use disorders and addiction counseling pdf

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Contemporary Approach to Substance Abuse and Addiction Counseling

Drug rehabilitation is the process of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol , prescription drugs , and street drugs such as cannabis , cocaine , heroin or amphetamines.

The general intent is to enable the patient to confront substance dependence , if present, and stop substance misuse to avoid the psychological , legal, financial, social, and physical consequences that can be caused. Treatment includes medication for depression or other disorders, counseling by experts and sharing of experience with other addicts.

Psychological dependency is addressed in many drug rehabilitation programs by attempting to teach the person new methods of interacting in a drug-free environment. In particular, patients are generally encouraged, or possibly even required, to not associate with peers who still use the addictive substance. Twelve-step programs encourage addicts not only to stop using alcohol or other drugs, but to examine and change habits related to their addictions.

Many programs emphasize that recovery is an ongoing process without culmination. For legal drugs such as alcohol, complete abstention—rather than attempts at moderation , which may lead to relapse —is also emphasized "One is too many, and a thousand is never enough. Whether moderation is achievable by those with a history of misuse remains a controversial point.

The brain's chemical structure is impacted by addictive substances and these changes are present long after an individual stops using. This change in brain structure increases the risk of relapse, making treatment an important part of the rehabilitation process.

Some rehab centers offer age- and gender-specific programs. Effective treatment addresses the multiple needs of the patient rather than treating addiction alone. According to NIDA, effective treatment must address medical and mental health services as well as follow-up options, such as community or family-based recovery support systems.

For individuals addicted to prescription drugs, treatments tend to be similar to those who are addicted to drugs affecting the same brain systems. Medication like methadone and buprenorphine can be used to treat addiction to prescription opiates, and behavioral therapies can be used to treat addiction to prescription stimulants, benzodiazepines, and other drugs. Treatment can be a long process and the duration is dependent upon the patient's needs and history of substance use. Research has shown that most patients need at least three months of treatment and longer durations are associated with better outcomes.

Certain opioid medications such as methadone and more buprenorphine are widely used to treat addiction and dependence on other opioids such as heroin, morphine or oxycodone. Methadone and buprenorphine are maintenance therapies intended to reduce cravings for opiates, thereby reducing illegal drug use , and the risks associated with it, such as disease, arrest, incarceration , and death, in line with the philosophy of harm reduction.

Both drugs may be used as maintenance medications taken for an indefinite period of time , or used as detoxification aids. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA , patients stabilized on adequate, sustained doses of methadone or buprenorphine can keep their jobs, avoid crime and violence, and reduce their exposure to HIV and Hepatitis C by stopping or reducing injection drug use and drug-related high risk sexual behavior.

Naltrexone is a long-acting opioid antagonist with few side effects. It is usually prescribed in outpatient medical conditions. Naltrexone blocks the euphoric effects of alcohol and opiates. Ibogaine is a hallucinogenic drug promoted by certain fringe groups to interrupt both physical dependence and psychological craving to a broad range of drugs including narcotics, stimulants, alcohol, and nicotine.

To date, there have never been any controlled studies showing it to be effective, and it is not accepted as a treatment by physicians, pharmacists, or addictionologist. There have also been several deaths related to ibogaine use, which causes tachycardia and long QT syndrome. The drug is an illegal Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, and the foreign facilities in which it is administered from tend to have little oversight, and range from motel rooms to one moderately-sized rehabilitation center.

These medications include bupropion and nortriptyline. Acamprosate , disulfiram and topiramate a novel anticonvulsant sulphonated sugar are also used to treat alcohol addiction. Acamprosate has shown effectiveness for patients with severe dependence, helping them to maintain abstinence for several weeks, even months. It is more effective for patients with high motivation and some addicts use it only for high-risk situations.

Nitrous oxide , also sometimes known as laughing gas, is a legally available gas used for anesthesia during certain dental and surgical procedures, in food preparation, and for the fueling of rocket and racing engines. People who use substances also sometimes use the gas as an inhalant.

Like all other inhalants, it is popular because it provides consciousness-altering effects while allowing users to avoid some of the legal issues surrounding illicit substances. Misuse of nitrous oxide can produce significant short-term and long-term damage to human health, including a form of oxygen starvation called hypoxia , brain damage, and a serious vitamin B12 deficiency that can lead to nerve damage. Although dangerous and addictive in its own right, nitrous oxide has been shown to be an effective treatment for a number of addictions.

In-patient residential treatment for people with an alcohol use disorder is usually quite expensive without insurance. The length is based solely upon providers' experience. During the s, clients stayed about one week to get over the physical changes, another week to understand the program, and another week or two to become stable. Patients with severe opioid addiction are being given brain implants to help reduce their cravings, in the first trial of its kind in the US.

Treatment starts with a series of brain scans. Surgery follows with doctors making a small hole in the skull in order to insert a tiny 1mm electrode in the specific area of the brain that regulates impulses such as addiction and self-control. It is a very rigorous trial with oversight from ethicists and regulators and many other governing bodies.

The definition of recovery remains divided and subjective in drug rehabilitation, as there are no set standards for measuring recovery. The Betty Ford Institute defined recovery as achieving complete abstinence as well as personal well-being [34] while other studies have considered "near abstinence" as a definition. Drug rehabilitation is sometimes part of the criminal justice system.

People convicted of minor drug offenses may be sentenced to rehabilitation instead of prison, and those convicted of driving while intoxicated are sometimes required to attend Alcoholics Anonymous meetings. There are a great number of ways to address an alternative sentence in a drug possession or DUI case; increasingly, American courts are willing to explore outside-the-box methods for delivering this service.

There have been lawsuits filed, and won, regarding the requirement of attending Alcoholics Anonymous and other twelve-step meetings as being inconsistent with the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the U. Constitution, mandating separation of church and state. In some cases, individuals can be court ordered to drug rehabilitation by the state through legislation like the Marchman Act.

Counselors help individuals with identifying behaviors and problems related to their addiction. It can be done on an individual basis, but it's more common to find it in a group setting and can include crisis counseling, weekly or daily counseling, and drop-in counseling supports. Counselors are trained to develop recovery programs that help to reestablish healthy behaviors and provide coping strategies whenever a situation of risk happens.

It's very common to see them also work with family members who are affected by the addictions of the individual, or in a community to prevent addiction and educate the public. Counselors should be able to recognize how addiction affects the whole person and those around him or her.

This process begins with a professionals' first goal: breaking down denial of the person with the addiction.

Denial implies lack of willingness from the patients or fear to confront the true nature of the addiction and to take any action to improve their lives, instead of continuing the destructive behavior. Once this has been achieved, the counselor coordinates with the addict's family to support them on getting the individual to drug rehabilitation immediately, with concern and care for this person. Otherwise, this person will be asked to leave and expect no support of any kind until going into drug rehabilitation or alcoholism treatment.

An intervention can also be conducted in the workplace environment with colleagues instead of family. One approach with limited applicability is the sober coach. In this approach, the client is serviced by the provider s in his or her home and workplace—for any efficacy, around-the-clock—who functions much like a nanny to guide or control the patient's behavior.

The disease model of addiction has long contended the maladaptive patterns of alcohol and substance use displays addicted individuals are the result of a lifelong disease that is biological in origin and exacerbated by environmental contingencies.

This conceptualization renders the individual essentially powerless over his or her problematic behaviors and unable to remain sober by himself or herself, much as individuals with a terminal illness being unable to fight the disease by themselves without medication. Behavioral treatment, therefore, necessarily requires individuals to admit their addiction, renounce their former lifestyle, and seek a supportive social network who can help them remain sober.

Such approaches are the quintessential features of Twelve-step programs, originally published in the book Alcoholics Anonymous in Opponents also contend that it lacks valid scientific evidence for claims of efficacy. It gives importance to the human agency in overcoming addiction and focuses on self-empowerment and self-reliance. It does not involve a lifetime membership concept, but people can opt to attend meetings, and choose not to after gaining recovery.

This is considered to be similar to other self-help groups who work within mutual aid concepts. In his influential book, Client-Centered Therapy , in which he presented the client-centered approach to therapeutic change, psychologist Carl Rogers proposed there are three necessary and sufficient conditions for personal change: unconditional positive regard, accurate empathy, and genuineness.

Rogers believed the presence of these three items, in the therapeutic relationship , could help an individual overcome any troublesome issue, including but not limited to alcohol use disorder. To this end, a study [49] compared the relative effectiveness of three different psychotherapies in treating alcoholics who had been committed to a state hospital for sixty days: a therapy based on two-factor learning theory, client-centered therapy , and psychoanalytic therapy.

Though the authors expected the two-factor theory to be the most effective, it actually proved to be deleterious in the outcome. Surprisingly, client-centered therapy proved most effective.

It has been argued, however, these findings may be attributable to the profound difference in therapist outlook between the two-factor and client-centered approaches, rather than to client-centered techniques.

A variation of Rogers' approach has been developed in which clients are directly responsible for determining the goals and objectives of the treatment. Psychoanalysis , a psychotherapeutic approach to behavior change developed by Sigmund Freud and modified by his followers, has also offered an explanation of substance use.

This orientation suggests the main cause of the addiction syndrome is the unconscious need to entertain and to enact various kinds of homosexual and perverse fantasies, and at the same time to avoid taking responsibility for this.

It is hypothesized specific drugs facilitate specific fantasies and using drugs is considered to be a displacement from, and a concomitant of, the compulsion to masturbate while entertaining homosexual and perverse fantasies. The addiction syndrome is also hypothesized to be associated with life trajectories that have occurred within the context of teratogenic processes, the phases of which include social, cultural and political factors, encapsulation, traumatophobia, and masturbation as a form of self-soothing.

Additionally, homosexual content is not implicated as a necessary feature in addiction. An influential cognitive-behavioral approach to addiction recovery and therapy has been Alan Marlatt's Relapse Prevention approach. Self-efficacy refers to one's ability to deal competently and effectively with high-risk, relapse-provoking situations.

Outcome expectancy refer to an individual's expectations about the psychoactive effects of an addictive substance. Attributions of causality refer to an individual's pattern of beliefs that relapse to drug use is a result of internal, or rather external, transient causes e. Finally, decision-making processes are implicated in the relapse process as well. Substance use is the result of multiple decisions whose collective effects result in a consumption of the intoxicant.

Furthermore, Marlatt stresses some decisions—referred to as apparently irrelevant decisions—may seem inconsequential to relapse, but may actually have downstream implications that place the user in a high-risk situation.

For example: As a result of heavy traffic, a recovering alcoholic may decide one afternoon to exit the highway and travel on side roads.

This will result in the creation of a high-risk situation when he realizes he is inadvertently driving by his old favorite bar. If this individual is able to employ successful coping strategies , such as distracting himself from his cravings by turning on his favorite music, then he will avoid the relapse risk PATH 1 and heighten his efficacy for future abstinence.

If, however, he lacks coping mechanisms—for instance, he may begin ruminating on his cravings PATH 2 —then his efficacy for abstinence will decrease, his expectations of positive outcomes will increase, and he may experience a lapse—an isolated return to substance intoxication. So doing results in what Marlatt refers to as the Abstinence Violation Effect, characterized by guilt for having gotten intoxicated and low efficacy for future abstinence in similar tempting situations.

This is a dangerous pathway, Marlatt proposes, to full-blown relapse. An additional cognitively-based model of substance use recovery has been offered by Aaron Beck , the father of cognitive therapy and championed in his book Cognitive Therapy of Substance Abuse.

Drug rehabilitation

Get the latest information from CDC coronavirus. Research studies on addiction treatment typically have classified programs into several general types or modalities. Treatment approaches and individual programs continue to evolve and diversify, and many programs today do not fit neatly into traditional drug adiction treatment classifications. Most, however, start with detoxification and medically managed withdrawal, often considered the first stage of treatment. Detoxification, the process by which the body clears itself of drugs, is designed to manage the acute and potentially dangerous physiological effects of stopping drug use. As stated previously, detoxification alone does not address the psychological, social, and behavioral problems associated with addiction and therefore does not typically produce lasting behavioral changes necessary for recovery.

A Review of CBT Treatments for Substance Use Disorders

Drug rehabilitation is the process of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol , prescription drugs , and street drugs such as cannabis , cocaine , heroin or amphetamines. The general intent is to enable the patient to confront substance dependence , if present, and stop substance misuse to avoid the psychological , legal, financial, social, and physical consequences that can be caused. Treatment includes medication for depression or other disorders, counseling by experts and sharing of experience with other addicts.

Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions.

Do you or your organization want to purchase 10 or more of the same product? Bulk sale discounts are available! Discounts: Discounts cannot be combined. Contact the Membership Services Team at naadac naadac. The Basics of Addiction Counseling Desk Reference is a three-volume set that has aided many addiction professionals in attaining their state and national credentials.

The unmet need for addiction therapy is not due to a lack of beds, funding, or patients. The missing piece in the addiction treatment puzzle is the experienced counselor with the knowledge, integrity, and compassion to become a certified professional. Long-term dependency on alcohol, illegal drugs, or prescription medications has a devastating effect on individuals, families, and communities.

Certified Addiction Counselor Practice Test

Models of drug use Task - writing exercise Summary Distance learners Models of drug use Throughout history people have tried to understand the concept of drug use and why some people become dependent or addicted to certain drugs and why some don't. Many theories have been developed over time that provide us with explanations of drug use. Some of these theories have been developed into models which is a way of defining a problem or situation so that it can be more easily understood. The following models have been most influential in developing drug policies and drug treatment historically and are still used in Australia. These models influence the way people work with young people and other individuals who have drug problems. You may be able to relate to some models better than others and identify models that underpin your agency's approach to drug use. Moral model During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries addiction was viewed as a sin.

Brooks and McHenry providea straightforward, compassionate, and holistic approach to treatment andrecovery, from the major theoretical underpinnings, to assessment anddiagnosis, to relapse prevention and spirituality. With a focus on currentclinical applications and how-tos, this book is ideal both for master s-leveladdictions courses and for mental health clinicians. Remember me Log in. Lost your password? SKU: 1b3eb6c2 Category: Ebook.


A Directory of De-addiction helpline across India and rehab center to quit smoking,alcohol or any such substance.


COMMENT 2

  • Drugs are chemical substances that can change how your body and mind work. Rachel T. - 06.05.2021 at 15:05
  • This review article presents a summary of the existing literature on well-established CBT treatments for substance use disorder. Wendipooh - 09.05.2021 at 14:29

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