Blood composition and function pdf answers
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- Components of Blood
- Blood function and composition
- Composition of the Blood
- Functions of the Blood: 8 Facts about Blood
Components of Blood
Plasma , also called blood plasma , the liquid portion of blood. Plasma serves as a transport medium for delivering nutrients to the cells of the various organs of the body and for transporting waste products derived from cellular metabolism to the kidneys, liver, and lungs for excretion.
It is also a transport system for blood cells, and it plays a critical role in maintaining normal blood pressure. Plasma helps to distribute heat throughout the body and to maintain homeostasis , or biological stability, including acid-base balance in the blood and body. Plasma is derived when all the blood cells— red blood cells erythrocytes , white blood cells leukocytes , and platelets thrombocytes —are separated from whole blood.
The remaining straw-coloured fluid is 90—92 percent water, but it contains critical solutes necessary for sustaining health and life. Important constituents include electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, magnesium, and calcium.
In addition, there are trace amounts of other substances, including amino acids , vitamins , organic acids, pigments , and enzymes. Hormones such as insulin , corticosteroids, and thyroxine are secreted into the blood by the endocrine system.
Plasma concentrations of hormones must be carefully regulated for good health. Nitrogenous wastes e. Plasma contains 6—8 percent proteins. One critical group is the coagulation proteins and their inhibitors, synthesized primarily in the liver. When blood clotting is activated, fibrinogen circulating in the blood is converted to fibrin , which in turn helps to form a stable blood clot at the site of vascular disruption.
Coagulation inhibitor proteins help to prevent abnormal coagulation hypercoagulability and to resolve clots after they are formed. When plasma is allowed to clot, fibrinogen converts to fibrin, trapping the cellular elements of blood. The resulting liquid, devoid of cells and fibrinogen, is called serum. Biochemical testing of plasma and serum is an important part of modern clinical diagnosis and treatment monitoring.
High or low concentrations of glucose in the plasma or serum help to confirm serious disorders such as diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. Substances secreted into the plasma by cancers may indicate an occult malignancy; for instance, an increased concentration of prostate-specific antigen PSA in a middle-aged asymptomatic man may indicate undiagnosed prostate cancer. Serum albumin , another protein synthesized by the liver, constitutes approximately 60 percent of all of the plasma proteins.
It is very important in maintaining osmotic pressure in the blood vessels; it is also an important carrier protein for a number of substances, including hormones. Other proteins called alpha and beta globulins transport lipids such as cholesterol as well as steroid hormones , sugar , and iron. The gamma globulins, or immunoglobulins, are an important class of proteins that are secreted by B lymphocytes of the immune system.
Cytokines are proteins synthesized by cells of various organs and by cells found in the immune system and bone marrow in order to maintain normal blood cell formation hematopoiesis and regulate inflammation. For example, one cytokine called erythropoietin, synthesized by specialized kidney cells, stimulates bone marrow blood progenitor cells to produce red blood cells. Other cytokines stimulate the production of white blood cells and platelets. Another protein system in the plasma, called complement , is important in mediating appropriate immune and inflammatory responses to a variety of infectious agents.
The electrolytes and acid-base system found in the plasma are finely regulated. For example, potassium is normally present in plasma in a concentration of only 4 milliequivalents per litre.
A slight rise in plasma potassium to 6—7 milliequivalents per litre can result in death. Likewise, sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, and magnesium levels in the plasma must be precisely maintained within a narrow range.
Smaller molecules such as sodium, potassium, glucose , and calcium are primarily responsible for the concentration of dissolved particles in the plasma. However, it is the concentration of much larger proteins especially albumin on either side of semipermeable membranes such as the endothelial cells lining the capillaries that creates crucial pressure gradients necessary to maintain the correct amount of water within the intravascular compartment and, therefore, to regulate the volume of circulating blood.
So, for example, patients who have kidney dysfunction or low plasma protein concentrations especially low albumin may develop a migration of water from the vascular space into the tissue spaces, causing edema swelling and congestion in the extremities and vital organs, including the lungs. Plasma Article Media Additional Info.
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Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. David H. See Article History. Blood sediment in test tubes, showing plasma clear fluid , red blood cells red , and the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding plasma pink. Read More on This Topic. The liquid portion of the blood, the plasma, is a complex solution containing more than 90 percent water. The water of the plasma is freely Blood is made up of multiple components, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma.
Researchers use a fidget spinner as a centrifuge to separate blood plasma. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The water of the plasma is freely exchangeable with that of body cells and other extracellular fluids and is available to maintain the normal state of…. Plasma , the liquid portion of the blood, is more than 90 percent water. It contains all the noncellular components of whole blood including the coagulation factors, immunoglobulins and other proteins, and electrolytes.
When frozen, the coagulation factors remain stable for up to one year…. The fibrinogen content of the blood plasma is 0. History at your fingertips.
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Blood function and composition
The bones of the skeletal system serve many important functions for the body, from giving your body support to allowing you to move. They also play an important role in blood cell production and fat storage. Bone marrow is the spongy or viscous tissue that fills the inside of your bones. There are actually two types of bone marrow:. Read on to learn more about different functions of red and yellow bone marrow as well as the conditions that affect bone marrow. Red bone marrow is involved in hematopoiesis. This is another name for blood cell production.
When a sample of blood is spun in a centrifuge , the cells and cell fragments are separated from the liquid intercellular matrix. Because the formed elements are heavier than the liquid matrix, they are packed in the bottom of the tube by the centrifugal force. The light yellow colored liquid on the top is the plasma , which accounts for about 55 percent of the blood volume and red blood cells is called the hematocrit ,or packed cell volume PCV. The white blood cells and platelets form a thin white layer, called the " buffy coat ", between plasma and red blood cells. The watery fluid portion of blood 90 percent water in which the corpuscular elements are suspended.
Composition of the Blood
Blood is composed of plasma and three types of cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Left tube: after standing, the RBCs have settled at the bottom of the tube. Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid, plasma, and cells.
Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. Hematology is the study of blood and the disorders related to it.
Find GPs in Australia. The formed elements are so named because they are enclosed in a plasma membrane and have a definite structure and shape.
Functions of the Blood: 8 Facts about Blood
See also Overview of Blood. Plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended. It constitutes more than half of the blood's volume and consists mostly of water that contains dissolved salts electrolytes and proteins. The major protein in plasma is albumin.
Blood is a suspension of blood elements erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets in blood plasma. Blood elements can be separated from blood plasma using centrifugal force. Figure shows that the most descended are erythrocytes — the volume of erythrocytes in a sample of blood is called the hematocrit. Above the erythrocyte layer is found the white non-transparent layer composed of leukocytes and thrombocytes. In our blood vessels circulate about 4. Women have less blood than men. Blood plasma, making up the liquid portion of blood, is a colloid solution of organic and inorganic substances electrolytes, nutrients, proteins, hormones etc.
Plasma , also called blood plasma , the liquid portion of blood. Plasma serves as a transport medium for delivering nutrients to the cells of the various organs of the body and for transporting waste products derived from cellular metabolism to the kidneys, liver, and lungs for excretion. It is also a transport system for blood cells, and it plays a critical role in maintaining normal blood pressure. Plasma helps to distribute heat throughout the body and to maintain homeostasis , or biological stability, including acid-base balance in the blood and body. Plasma is derived when all the blood cells— red blood cells erythrocytes , white blood cells leukocytes , and platelets thrombocytes —are separated from whole blood. The remaining straw-coloured fluid is 90—92 percent water, but it contains critical solutes necessary for sustaining health and life. Important constituents include electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, magnesium, and calcium.
Blood, fluid that transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells and carries away carbon dioxide and. Page 1/5. Page 2. Download Free Composition And Functions.
Blood is made of of several components, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and the plasma, which contains coagulation factors and serum. Blood helps maintain homeostasis by stabilizing pH, temperature, osmotic pressure, and by eliminating excess heat. Blood supports growth by distributing nutrients and hormones, and by removing waste. These cells deliver oxygen to the cells and remove carbon dioxide. Blood plays a protective role by transporting clotting factors and platelets to prevent blood loss after injury. These cells—including neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils—are involved in the immune response.
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