Sensation and perception goldstein pdf
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- Sensation and Perception
Perception from the Latin perceptio , meaning gathering or receiving is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system , which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system.
Perception is not only the passive receipt of these signals , but it's also shaped by the recipient's learning , memory , expectation , and attention. Perception depends on complex functions of the nervous system, but subjectively seems mostly effortless because this processing happens outside conscious awareness.
Since the rise of experimental psychology in the 19th century, psychology's understanding of perception has progressed by combining a variety of techniques. Perceptual systems can also be studied computationally , in terms of the information they process. Perceptual issues in philosophy include the extent to which sensory qualities such as sound, smell or color exist in objective reality rather than in the mind of the perceiver.
Although the senses were traditionally viewed as passive receptors, the study of illusions and ambiguous images has demonstrated that the brain's perceptual systems actively and pre-consciously attempt to make sense of their input.
The perceptual systems of the brain enable individuals to see the world around them as stable, even though the sensory information is typically incomplete and rapidly varying. Human and animal brains are structured in a modular way , with different areas processing different kinds of sensory information. Some of these modules take the form of sensory maps , mapping some aspect of the world across part of the brain's surface.
These different modules are interconnected and influence each other. For instance, taste is strongly influenced by smell. The process of perception begins with an object in the real world, known as the distal stimulus or distal object. These sensory organs transform the input energy into neural activity—a process called transduction. To explain the process of perception, an example could be an ordinary shoe. The shoe itself is the distal stimulus.
When light from the shoe enters a person's eye and stimulates the retina, that stimulation is the proximal stimulus. Another example could be a ringing telephone. The ringing of the phone is the distal stimulus. The sound stimulating a person's auditory receptors is the proximal stimulus. The brain's interpretation of this as the "ringing of a telephone" is the percept.
The different kinds of sensation such as warmth, sound, and taste are called sensory modalities or stimulus modalities. Psychologist Jerome Bruner developed a model of perception, in which people put "together the information contained in" a target and a situation to form "perceptions of ourselves and others based on social categories.
According to Alan Saks and Gary Johns, there are three components to perception: . Stimuli are not necessarily translated into a percept and rarely does a single stimulus translate into a percept. An ambiguous stimulus may sometimes be transduced into one or more percepts, experienced randomly, one at a time, in a process termed " multistable perception. Ambiguous figures demonstrate that a single stimulus can result in more than one percept. For example, the Rubin vase can be interpreted either as a vase or as two faces.
The percept can bind sensations from multiple senses into a whole. A picture of a talking person on a television screen, for example, is bound to the sound of speech from speakers to form a percept of a talking person. In many ways, vision is the primary human sense. Light is taken in through each eye and focused in a way which sorts it on the retina according to direction of origin.
A dense surface of photosensitive cells, including rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells captures information about the intensity, color, and position of incoming light. Some processing of texture and movement occurs within the neurons on the retina before the information is sent to the brain.
In total, about 15 differing types of information are then forwarded to the brain proper via the optic nerve. Hearing or audition is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations i. The auditory system includes the outer ears , which collect and filter sound waves; the middle ear , which transforms the sound pressure impedance matching ; and the inner ear , which produces neural signals in response to the sound.
By the ascending auditory pathway these are led to the primary auditory cortex within the temporal lobe of the human brain, from where the auditory information then goes to the cerebral cortex for further processing. Sound does not usually come from a single source: in real situations, sounds from multiple sources and directions are superimposed as they arrive at the ears.
Hearing involves the computationally complex task of separating out sources of interest, identifying them and often estimating their distance and direction.
The process of recognizing objects through touch is known as haptic perception. It involves a combination of somatosensory perception of patterns on the skin surface e.
People can rapidly and accurately identify three-dimensional objects by touch. Gibson defined the haptic system as "the sensibility of the individual to the world adjacent to his body by use of his body. The concept of haptic perception is related to the concept of extended physiological proprioception according to which, when using a tool such as a stick, perceptual experience is transparently transferred to the end of the tool.
Taste formally known as gustation is the ability to perceive the flavor of substances, including, but not limited to, food. Humans receive tastes through sensory organs concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue , called taste buds or gustatory calyculi.
Traditionally, there have been four primary tastes: sweetness , bitterness , sourness , and saltiness. However, the recognition and awareness of umami , which is considered the fifth primary taste, is a relatively recent development in Western cuisine. Other factors include smell , which is detected by the olfactory epithelium of the nose;  texture , which is detected through a variety of mechanoreceptors , muscle nerves, etc.
Smell is the process of absorbing molecules through olfactory organs , which are absorbed by humans through the nose. These molecules diffuse through a thick layer of mucus ; come into contact with one of thousands of cilia that are projected from sensory neurons; and are then absorbed into a receptor one of or so.
Smell is also a very interactive sense as scientists have begun to observe that olfaction comes into contact with the other sense in unexpected ways. As such, it can be a catalyst for human behavior on a subconscious and instinctive level. Social perception is the part of perception that allows people to understand the individuals and groups of their social world. Thus, it is an element of social cognition. Speech perception is the process by which spoken language is heard, interpreted and understood.
Research in this field seeks to understand how human listeners recognize the sound of speech or phonetics and use such information to understand spoken language. Listeners manage to perceive words across a wide range of conditions, as the sound of a word can vary widely according to words that surround it and the tempo of the speech, as well as the physical characteristics, accent , tone , and mood of the speaker. Reverberation , signifying the persistence of sound after the sound is produced, can also have a considerable impact on perception.
Experiments have shown that people automatically compensate for this effect when hearing speech. The process of perceiving speech begins at the level of the sound within the auditory signal and the process of audition.
The initial auditory signal is compared with visual information—primarily lip movement—to extract acoustic cues and phonetic information. It is possible other sensory modalities are integrated at this stage as well. Speech perception is not necessarily uni-directional. In an experiment, Richard M. Warren replaced one phoneme of a word with a cough-like sound. His subjects restored the missing speech sound perceptually without any difficulty. Moreover, they were not able to accurately identify which phoneme had even been disturbed.
Facial perception refers to cognitive processes specialized in handling human faces including perceiving the identity of an individual and facial expressions such as emotional cues. The somatosensory cortex is a part of the brain that receives and encodes sensory information from receptors of the entire body. Affective touch is a type of sensory information that elicits an emotional reaction and is usually social in nature. Such information is actually coded differently than other sensory information.
Though the intensity of affective touch is still encoded in the primary somatosensory cortex, the feeling of pleasantness associated with affective touch is activated more in the anterior cingulate cortex.
Increased blood oxygen level-dependent BOLD contrast imaging, identified during functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI , shows that signals in the anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the prefrontal cortex , are highly correlated with pleasantness scores of affective touch.
Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS of the primary somatosensory cortex inhibits the perception of affective touch intensity, but not affective touch pleasantness.
Therefore, the S1 is not directly involved in processing socially affective touch pleasantness, but still plays a role in discriminating touch location and intensity. Multi-modal perception refers to concurrent stimulation in more than one sensory modality and the effect such has on the perception of events and objects in the world.
Chronoception refers to how the passage of time is perceived and experienced. Although the sense of time is not associated with a specific sensory system , the work of psychologists and neuroscientists indicates that human brains do have a system governing the perception of time,   composed of a highly distributed system involving the cerebral cortex , cerebellum , and basal ganglia. One particular component of the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus , is responsible for the circadian rhythm commonly known as one's "internal clock" , while other cell clusters appear to be capable of shorter-range timekeeping, known as an ultradian rhythm.
One or more dopaminergic pathways in the central nervous system appear to have a strong modulatory influence on mental chronometry , particularly interval timing. Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of having chosen a particular action. Some conditions, such as schizophrenia , can cause a loss of this sense, which may lead a person into delusions, such as feeling like a machine or like an outside source is controlling them.
An opposite extreme can also occur, where people experience everything in their environment as though they had decided that it would happen. Even in non- pathological cases, there is a measurable difference between the making of a decision and the feeling of agency.
Through methods such as the Libet experiment , a gap of half a second or more can be detected from the time when there are detectable neurological signs of a decision having been made to the time when the subject actually becomes conscious of the decision. There are also experiments in which an illusion of agency is induced in psychologically normal subjects. In , psychologists Wegner and Wheatley gave subjects instructions to move a mouse around a scene and point to an image about once every thirty seconds.
However, a second person—acting as a test subject but actually a confederate—had their hand on the mouse at the same time, and controlled some of the movement. Experimenters were able to arrange for subjects to perceive certain "forced stops" as if they were their own choice. Recognition memory is sometimes divided into two functions by neuroscientists: familiarity and recollection.
The temporal lobe specifically the perirhinal cortex responds differently to stimuli that feel novel compared to stimuli that feel familiar. Firing rates in the perirhinal cortex are connected with the sense of familiarity in humans and other mammals. Recent studies on lesions in the area concluded that rats with a damaged perirhinal cortex were still more interested in exploring when novel objects were present, but seemed unable to tell novel objects from familiar ones—they examined both equally.
Thus, other brain regions are involved with noticing unfamiliarity, while the perirhinal cortex is needed to associate the feeling with a specific source. Sexual stimulation is any stimulus including bodily contact that leads to, enhances, and maintains sexual arousal , possibly even leading to orgasm. Distinct from the general sense of touch , sexual stimulation is strongly tied to hormonal activity and chemical triggers in the body.
Owing to this, the forthcoming forms simultaneously diminish going back to the primeval source. Reviewed by Om. Upadhya, T. Sensation and Perception, Second Ed. Bruce Goldstein. Wadsworth Publishing Company, California, ISBN:
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Sensation and Perception
Perception from the Latin perceptio , meaning gathering or receiving is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system , which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system. Perception is not only the passive receipt of these signals , but it's also shaped by the recipient's learning , memory , expectation , and attention. Perception depends on complex functions of the nervous system, but subjectively seems mostly effortless because this processing happens outside conscious awareness. Since the rise of experimental psychology in the 19th century, psychology's understanding of perception has progressed by combining a variety of techniques.
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