Acid and base balance pdf

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Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

An important property of blood is its degree of acidity or alkalinity. The acidity or alkalinity of any solution, including blood, is indicated on the pH scale. The pH scale, ranges from 0 strongly acidic to 14 strongly basic or alkaline. Blood is normally slightly basic, with a normal pH range of about 7. Usually the body maintains the pH of blood close to 7. A doctor evaluates a person's acid-base balance by measuring the pH and levels of carbon dioxide an acid and bicarbonate a base in the blood.

Level of acidic compounds in the body rises through increased intake or production, or decreased elimination. Level of basic alkaline compounds in the body falls through decreased intake or production, or increased elimination. Blood alkalinity increases when the level of acid in the body decreases or when the level of base increases.

The blood's acid-base balance is precisely controlled because even a minor deviation from the normal range can severely affect many organs. The body uses different mechanisms to control the blood's acid-base balance.

These mechanisms involve the. One mechanism the body uses to control blood pH involves the release of carbon dioxide from the lungs. Carbon dioxide, which is mildly acidic, is a waste product of the processing metabolism of oxygen and nutrients which all cells need and, as such, is constantly produced by cells.

It then passes from the cells into the blood. The blood carries carbon dioxide to the lungs, where it is exhaled. As carbon dioxide accumulates in the blood, the pH of the blood decreases acidity increases. The brain regulates the amount of carbon dioxide that is exhaled by controlling the speed and depth of breathing ventilation. The amount of carbon dioxide exhaled, and consequently the pH of the blood, increases as breathing becomes faster and deeper. By adjusting the speed and depth of breathing, the brain and lungs are able to regulate the blood pH minute by minute.

The kidneys are able to affect blood pH by excreting excess acids or bases. The kidneys have some ability to alter the amount of acid or base that is excreted, but because the kidneys make these adjustments more slowly than the lungs do, this compensation generally takes several days. Yet another mechanism for controlling blood pH involves the use of chemical buffer systems, which guard against sudden shifts in acidity and alkalinity.

The pH buffer systems are combinations of the body's own naturally occurring weak acids and weak bases. These weak acids and bases exist in pairs that are in balance under normal pH conditions.

The pH buffer systems work chemically to minimize changes in the pH of a solution by adjusting the proportion of acid and base. The most important pH buffer system in the blood involves carbonic acid a weak acid formed from the carbon dioxide dissolved in blood and bicarbonate ions the corresponding weak base. Acidosis : The blood has too much acid or too little base , resulting in a decrease in blood pH. Alkalosis : The blood has too much base or too little acid , resulting in an increase in blood pH.

Acidosis and alkalosis are not diseases but rather are the result of a wide variety of disorders. The presence of acidosis or alkalosis provides an important clue to doctors that a serious problem exists.

Metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis are caused by an imbalance in the production of acids or bases and their excretion by the kidneys. Respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis are caused by changes in carbon dioxide exhalation due to lung or breathing disorders.

Each acid-base disturbance provokes automatic compensatory mechanisms that push the blood pH back toward normal. In general, the respiratory system compensates for metabolic disturbances while metabolic mechanisms compensate for respiratory disturbances. At first, the compensatory mechanisms may restore the pH close to normal.

Thus, if the blood pH has changed significantly, it means that the body's ability to compensate is failing. In such cases, doctors urgently search for and treat the underlying cause of the acid-base disturbance. Increased acid production due to diabetic ketoacidosis. Decreased ability to breathe due to severe chronic lung disease.

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Common Health Topics. Commonly searched drugs. Ranitidine Withdrawn from US Market. Control of Acid-Base Balance. Role of the lungs Role of the kidneys Buffer systems. Types of Acid-Base Disorders.

Types of acidosis and alkalosis Compensation for acid-base disorders. Acid-Base Balance. Test your knowledge.

Carcinoid tumors are noncancerous benign or cancerous malignant growths. Sometimes the tumors produce excessive amounts of hormone-like substances such as serotonin. Carcinoid syndrome is a group of symptoms that develop as a result of overproduction of these hormones.

In which part of the body do carcinoid tumors typically originate? More Content. Click here for the Professional Version. The body's balance between acidity and alkalinity is referred to as acid-base balance. There are two abnormalities of acid-base balance:.

Acidosis and alkalosis are categorized depending on their primary cause as. Was This Page Helpful? Yes No. Overview of Electrolytes. Overview of Stroke. Overview of Anemia. Add to Any Platform. Primary Disturbance. Initial Blood pH. Compensatory Mechanism. Compensatory Change in Blood pH. Metabolic acidosis. Increased breathing rate to expel carbon dioxide. Increases back toward normal. Respiratory acidosis. Increased excretion of acid in the urine. Metabolic alkalosis. Loss of stomach acid due to vomiting.

Decreased breathing rate to retain carbon dioxide. Decreases back toward normal. Respiratory alkalosis. Hyperventilation due to anxiety. Increased excretion of alkali in the urine.

Acid-Base Balance

The kidneys help maintain the acid—base balance by excreting hydrogen ions into the urine and reabsorbing bicarbonate from the urine. Urine testing is important because it can detect acid—base imbalances. For instance, uncontrolled diabetes results in highly acidic urine. If the diabetes remains uncontrolled, the kidneys could become over-stressed and malfunction, which could lead to coma or death. Within the human body, fluids such as blood must be maintained within the narrow range of 7. Outside that range, pH becomes incompatible with life; proteins are denatured and digested, enzymes lose their ability to function, and the body is unable to sustain itself. To maintain this narrow range of pH the body has a powerful buffering system.

An important property of blood is its degree of acidity or alkalinity. The acidity or alkalinity of any solution, including blood, is indicated on the pH scale. The pH scale, ranges from 0 strongly acidic to 14 strongly basic or alkaline. Blood is normally slightly basic, with a normal pH range of about 7. Usually the body maintains the pH of blood close to 7.

By convention, scientists refer to hydrogen ions and their concentration as if they were free in this state in liquid water. The pH is calculated as the negative of the base 10 logarithm of this concentration:. Human cells and blood each maintain near-neutral pH. The pH of a solution indicates its acidity or basicity alkalinity. The pH scale is an inverse logarithm that ranges from 0 to anything below 7. Extremes in pH in either direction from 7.


interpreting acid-base balance requires simultaneous mea- surements of arterial pH and plasma electrolytes, as well as knowledge of compensatory physiologic.


The Kidney in Acid-Base Balance

The lungs partially compensate for acidosis or alkalosis through increased or decreased excretion of CO 2 in a matter of minutes. The kidneys, however, are ultimately responsible for maintaining body pH within narrow limits. In carnivorous and omnivorous animals like man, metabolism produces an excess of acid. Carbohydrate metabolism, when completed aerobically, produces H 2 O and CO 2 which can be eliminated by the lungs.

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The kidney is a homeostatic organ that varies the excretion of water, electrolytes, and other hydrophilic molecules to maintain constancy of the composition of the extracellular fluid ECF. This organ plays the most important role in the long-term regulation of blood pressure through its control of ECF volume. The paired kidneys are bean-shaped retroperitoneal organs, each about cm long and located on the posterior abdominal wall.

Arterial blood gas analysis is a test most frequently performed on critically ill patients in the emergency room, recovery room and intensive care unit by nursing staff. One of the main purposes of the test is assessment of acid-base status, which is often disturbed during critical illness. This article is intended to provide an introduction to the physiology of acid-base balance and the many pathological conditions that are associated with disturbance of that balance.

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Your blood needs the right balance of acidic and basic alkaline compounds to function properly. This is called the acid-base balance. Your kidneys and lungs work to maintain the acid-base balance. Even slight variations from the normal range can have significant effects on your vital organs.

Acid—base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to deviate out of the normal range 7. In the fetus , the normal range differs based on which umbilical vessel is sampled umbilical vein pH is normally 7. An excess of acid is called acidosis or acidemia and an excess in bases is called alkalosis or alkalemia. The process that causes the imbalance is classified based on the cause of the disturbance respiratory or metabolic and the direction of change in pH acidosis or alkalosis. This yields the following four basic processes:. The presence of only one of the above derangements is called a simple acid—base disorder. In a mixed disorder more than one is occurring at the same time.

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Human Anatomy & Physiology: Acid/Base Balance; Ziser, 1. Acid/Base Balance some of most critical ions in body fluids are H+ (hydrogen) and OH-.


25.4D: The Role of the Kidneys in Acid-Base Balance

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An introduction to acid-base balance in health and disease

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