Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems pdf

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different types of irrigation and irrigation systems pdf

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Irrigation is one of the most important useful things in mankind. There are a lot of methods for irrigation but the main point of this is to give water to the plant effectively and efficiently. Our earth and everything on it is dependent on many things and one of those things includes the plant.

Types of Agricultural Water Use

Drip irrigation is a type of micro-irrigation system that has the potential to save water and nutrients by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from above the soil surface or buried below the surface. The goal is to place water directly into the root zone and minimize evaporation. Drip irrigation systems distribute water through a network of valves , pipes , tubing , and emitters.

Depending on how well designed, installed, maintained, and operated it is, a drip irrigation system can be more efficient than other types of irrigation systems, such as surface irrigation or sprinkler irrigation.

Primitive drip irrigation has been used since ancient times. Fan Shengzhi shu , written in China during the first century BCE , describes the use of buried, unglazed clay pots filled with water, sometimes referred to as Ollas , as a means of irrigation. Modern drip irrigation began its development in Germany in when researchers began experimenting with subsurface irrigation using clay pipe to create combination irrigation and drainage systems.

The research was later expanded in the s to include the application of perforated pipe systems. The usage of plastic to hold and distribute water in drip irrigation was later developed in Australia by Hannis Thill. Usage of a plastic emitter in drip irrigation was developed in Israel by Simcha Blass and his son Yeshayahu. The first experimental system of this type was established in by Blass, who partnered later with Kibbutz Hatzerim to create an irrigation company called Netafim.

Together they developed and patented the first practical surface drip irrigation emitter. Modern drip irrigation has arguably become the world's most valued innovation in agriculture since the invention in the s of the impact sprinkler , which offered the first practical alternative to surface irrigation. Careful study of all the relevant factors like land topography, soil, water, crop and agro-climatic conditions are needed to determine the most suitable drip irrigation system and components to be used in a specific installation.

Drip irrigation may also use devices called micro-spray heads, which spray water in a small area, instead of dripping emitters. These are generally used on tree and vine crops with wider root zones. Subsurface drip irrigation SDI uses permanently or temporarily buried dripperline or drip tape located at or below the plant roots. It is becoming popular for row crop irrigation, especially in areas where water supplies are limited, or recycled water is used for irrigation.

As of , China and India were the fastest expanding countries in the field of drip- or other micro-irrigation, while worldwide well over ten million hectares utilised these technologies. In drip irrigation systems, pump and valves may be manually or automatically operated by a controller. Most large drip irrigation systems employ some type of filter to prevent clogging of the small emitter flow path by small waterborne particles. New technologies are now [ when? Some residential systems are installed without additional filters since potable water is already filtered at the water treatment plant.

Virtually all drip irrigation equipment manufacturers recommend that filters be employed and generally will not honor warranties unless this is done. Last line filters just before the final delivery pipe are strongly recommended in addition to any other filtration system due to fine particle settlement and accidental insertion of particles in the intermediate lines.

Drip and subsurface drip irrigation is used almost exclusively when using recycled municipal wastewater. Regulations typically do not permit spraying water through the air that has not been fully treated to potable water standards. Because of the way the water is applied in a drip system, traditional surface applications of timed-release fertilizer are sometimes ineffective, so drip systems often mix liquid fertilizer with the irrigation water.

This is called fertigation ; fertigation and chemigation application of pesticides and other chemicals to periodically clean out the system, such as chlorine or sulfuric acid use chemical injectors such as diaphragm pumps , piston pumps , or aspirators. The chemicals may be added constantly whenever the system is irrigating or at intervals. Properly designed, installed, and managed, drip irrigation may help achieve water conservation by reducing evaporation and deep drainage when compared to other types of irrigation such as flood or overhead sprinklers since water can be more precisely applied to the plant roots.

In addition, drip can eliminate many diseases that are spread through water contact with the foliage. Finally, in regions where water supplies are severely limited, there may be no actual water savings, but rather simply an increase in production while using the same amount of water as before.

In very arid regions or on sandy soils , the preferred method is to apply the irrigation water as slowly as possible. Pulsed irrigation is sometimes used to decrease the amount of water delivered to the plant at any one time, thus reducing runoff or deep percolation. Pulsed systems are typically expensive and require extensive maintenance.

Therefore, the latest efforts by emitter manufacturers are focused on developing new technologies that deliver irrigation water at ultra-low flow rates, i. Slow-and-even delivery further improves water use efficiency without incurring the expense and complexity of pulsed delivery equipment.

An emitting pipe is a type of drip irrigation tubing with emitters pre-installed at the factory with specific distance and flow per hour as per crop distance. An emitter restricts water flow passage through it, thus creating head loss required to the extent of atmospheric pressure in order to emit water in the form of droplets.

Drip tape is a type of thin-walled dripperline used in drip irrigation. The first drip tape was known as "Dew Hose". Drip tape duct tape is made of polyethylene and is sold flat on reels. The wall thickness typically ranges from 4 to 25 mils 0.

Thicker walled tapes are commonly used for permanent subsurface drip irrigation and thinner walled tapes for temporary throw-away type systems in high-value crops.

Water exits from tape through emitters or drippers. In some products, the emitters are manufactured simultaneously with the tape and are actually formed as part of the product itself.

In others, the emitters are manufactured separately and installed at the time of production. Some product is not a tape, but a thin-walled dripperline, but in popular parlance, both types of products are called tapes. Drip tape is a recyclable material and can be recycled into viable plastic resins for reuse in the plastics manufacturing industry. Drip irrigation is used in farms , commercial greenhouses , and residential gardens. Drip irrigation is adopted extensively in areas of acute water scarcity and especially for crops and trees such as coconuts , containerized landscape trees, grapes , bananas , ber , eggplant , citrus , strawberries , sugarcane , cotton , maize , and tomatoes.

Drip irrigation for garden available in drip kits are increasingly popular for the homeowner and consist of a timer , hose and emitter.

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Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage

Lettuce Lactuca sativa L. Moreover, these traits were higher under MS than under FI but these differences were not significant. The autumn crop achieved a higher WUE than the spring crop. The results suggested that the combined plastic film mulching-micro-sprinkler irrigation was the most suitable irrigation approach for increasing lettuce yield. Lettuce is rich in health-promoting compounds such as vitamins C and E, lutein, polyphenols and fibers [ 1 ], which plays an important role in avoiding the incidence of many chronic diseases [ 2 ].

Surface irrigation consists of a broad class of irrigation methods in which water is distributed over the soil surface by gravity flow. The irrigation water is introduced into level or graded furrows or basins, using siphons, gated pipe, or turnout structures, and is allowed to advance across the field. Surface irrigation is best suited to flat land slopes, and medium to fine textured soil types which promote the lateral spread of water down the furrow row or across the basin. Sprinkler irrigation is a method of irrigation in which water is sprayed, or sprinkled through the air in rain like drops. The spray and sprinkling devices can be permanently set in place solid set , temporarily set and then moved after a given amount of water has been applied portable set or intermittent mechanical move , or they can be mounted on booms and pipelines that continuously travel across the land surface wheel roll, linear move, center pivot. The discharge rate of the emitters is low so this irrigation method can be used on all soil types.

Types of Agricultural Water Use

Major aim of irrigation systems is to help out in the growing of agricultural crops and vegetation by maintaining with the minimum amount of water required, maintenance of landscapes and re-vegetation of disturbed soils. Irrigation systems are also used for dust repression, removal of sewage, and in mining. On the contrary, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry-land farming. In India, the irrigated area consists of about 36 percent of the net sown area.

Agriculture is the nerve of any country as it is needed for survival of living beings. For growing crops, irrigation is major process. Irrigation is described as the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is the substitute or supplement of rainwater with another source of water. It is used in dry areas and during periods of insufficient rainfall.

Types of Irrigation in India | Download PDF – Study Notes for SSC & Banking Exams

Agriculture is the nerve of any country as it is needed for survival of living beings.

Surface Irrigation:

Drip irrigation is a type of micro-irrigation system that has the potential to save water and nutrients by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from above the soil surface or buried below the surface. The goal is to place water directly into the root zone and minimize evaporation. Drip irrigation systems distribute water through a network of valves , pipes , tubing , and emitters. Depending on how well designed, installed, maintained, and operated it is, a drip irrigation system can be more efficient than other types of irrigation systems, such as surface irrigation or sprinkler irrigation. Primitive drip irrigation has been used since ancient times. Fan Shengzhi shu , written in China during the first century BCE , describes the use of buried, unglazed clay pots filled with water, sometimes referred to as Ollas , as a means of irrigation. Modern drip irrigation began its development in Germany in when researchers began experimenting with subsurface irrigation using clay pipe to create combination irrigation and drainage systems.

Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage

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